A. Apparent Design
In his hand are the depths of the earth, and the mountain peaks belong to him. 5 The sea is his, for he made it, and his hands formed the dry land. 6 Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the LORD our Maker. (NIV Psalm 95:4-6)
B. Shallow Meteorites – Meteorites are steadily falling onto Earth. This rate was probably much greater in the past, because planets have swept from the solar system much of the supposed original meteoritic material. Therefore, experts have expressed surprise that meteorites are almost always found in young sediments, very near Earth’s surface. Even meteoritic particles in ocean sediments are concentrated in the topmost layers. If Earth’s sediments, which average about a mile in thickness on the continents, were deposited over hundreds of millions of years, as evolutionists believe, we would expect to find many deeply buried iron meteorites. Because no meteorites are found immediately above the basement rocks on which these sediments rest, these basement rocks were not exposed to meteoritic bombardment for any great length of time.
C. Earth’s Decaying Magnetic Field – The total energy stored in the earth’s magnetic field (“dipole” and “non-dipole”) is decreasing with a half-life of 1,465 (± 165) years. The earth’s magnetic strength has declined almost 10% in the last 150 years, and at the present rate the field could not be more than 20,000 years old, because the electrical current would have been so vast that Earth’s structure could not have survived the heat produced. Evolutionary theories explaining this rapid decrease, as well as how the earth could have maintained its magnetic field for billions of years are overly complex and remain inadequate.
D. Carbon-14 Dating
1. In the years following Willard Libby’s development of the C14 dating method in 1947, “radiocarbon swept the scientific world with all the fervor of religious fanaticism, as the new and ‘absolute’ chronology was established.” In those early days the method was applied to almost anything containing carbon, and the results were published in the newly formed Radiocarbon Journal, a kind of clearing house for C14 data from all the various laboratories. Hundreds of fossil bones of Neanderthals, Cro-magnons, mammoths, sabre-tooth tigers, and other extinct animals, as well as fossil trees, coal, oil, and natural gas, were all reported having ages, by the C14 method, of only several thousand years.
2. The great number of these results, indicating a young age for material in some cases believed to be millions of years old, had disturbing implications for the geological time scale. In more recent years, C14 dates on such items as coal, oil, or dinosaur bones no longer appear in Radiocarbon Journal, because by now it has been impressed on research workers from their student years that the C14 method does not give results with materials “known” to be older than about 50,000 years; this is clearly untrue as shown by the early published results.
3. Carbon-14 in Deep Geologic Strata – With their short 5,700-year half-life, no carbon-14 atoms should exist in any carbon older than 250,000 years. Yet it has proven impossible to find any natural source of carbon below Pleistocene (~1.8M–11K ya) strata that does not contain significant amounts of carbon 14, even though such strata are supposed to be millions or billions of years old. Conventional carbon 14 laboratories, long-aware of this anomaly, have striven to eliminate it and are unable to account for it.
E. Helium-4 Equilibrium – Helium is pouring into the atmosphere from radioactive decay, but not much is escaping. The total amount in the atmosphere is only 1/2000th of that expected if the atmosphere were really billions of years old. Radioactive decay of uranium and thorium alone would produce all the atmosphere’s helium in only 40,000 years.
F. Helium Excess in Minerals – Uranium and thorium generate helium atoms as they decay to lead. A study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research showed that such helium produced in zircon crystals in deep, hot Precambrian granitic rock has not had time to escape. Though the rocks contain 1.5 billion years worth of nuclear decay products, newly measured rates of helium loss from zircon show that the helium has been leaking for only 5,680 (± 2,000) years.
G. Buckled Rock Strata – In many mountainous areas, strata thousands of feet thick are bent and folded into hairpin shapes. The conventional geologic time scale says these formations were deeply buried and solidified for hundreds of millions of years before they were bent. Yet the folding occurred without cracking, with radii so small that the entire formation had to be still wet and unsolidified when the bending occurred. This implies that the folding occurred less than thousands of years after deposition.
H. Continental Erosion
1. Sedimentologists have researched many of the world’s rivers and calculated how fast the land is disappearing. The measurements show that some rivers are excavating their basins by more than 50 inches of height per 1,000 years, while others move only .04 inches per 1,000 years. The average height reduction for all the continents of the world is about 2.4 inches per 1,000 years, which equates to some 24 billion tonnes of sediment per year.
2. At this average rate, North America should have been leveled in 10 million years, and the upper limit of all continental erosion to sea level is 14 million years. If the continents were billions of years old, they would have eroded by wind and water many times over. Mountain uplift and other ‘recycling’ processes are nowhere near capable of compensating for this.
3. The problem of erosion is particularly acute with mountains and plains, since evolutionists believe fossils of animals and plants at high elevations have somehow avoided this erosion for more than 300 million years. Moreover, vast allegedly ancient plains, such as Kangaroo Island in southern Australia, are “dated” at over 160 million years old, based on the fossil content and radiometric dating. One would expect that exposure to millions years of rain would result in some sort of channelization of the landscape, but there is very little.
4. Erosion in Stratification – The almost complete absence of evidence of erosion or soil layers or the activity of living things (plant roots, burrow marks, etc.) at the upper surface of the various strata shows that the stratum did not lay there for thousands or millions of years before the next layer was deposited.
I. Seafloor Sedimentation – Each year, water and winds erode about 20 billion tons of dirt and rock from the continents and deposit it in the ocean. The assumed means of sediment removal from the ocean floor is by plate tectonic subduction. That is, the sea floor slides slowly (a few cm/year) beneath the continents, taking some sediment with it. According to secular scientific literature, that process presently removes only 1 billion tons per year. As far as anyone knows, the other 19 billion tons per year simply accumulate. At that rate, erosion would deposit the present mass of sediment in less than 12 million years.
J. Ocean Salinity
1. Every year, rivers and other sources dump over 450 million tons of sodium into the ocean. Only 27% of this sodium manages to get back out of the sea each year. As far as anyone knows, the remainder simply accumulates in the ocean.
2. If the sea had no sodium to start with, it would have accumulated its present amount in less than 42 million years at today’s input and output rates. This is much less than the evolutionary age of the ocean, ~three billion years.
3. The usual reply to this discrepancy is that past sodium inputs must have been less and outputs greater. However, calculations that are as generous as possible to evolutionary scenarios still give a maximum age of only 62 million years. Calculations for many other seawater elements also give much younger ages for the ocean. Thus, recent creation seems a more plausible explanation.
K. Volcanic Debris – Volcanoes eject on average almost a cubic mile of material into the atmosphere each year. At this rapid rate, about 10 times the entire volume of Earth’s sedimentary rock should be produced in 4.5 billion years. Actually, only about 25% of Earth’s sediments are of volcanic origin, and much greater volcanic activity existed in the past. No means have been proposed for removing or transforming all the missing volcanic sediments.
 “No meteorites have ever been found in the geologic column.” [William H. Twenhofel, Principles of Sedimentation, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950), 144]; Fritz Heide, Meteorites (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), 119; N. T. Bobrovnikoff, “Comets,” Astrophysics, ed. J. A. Hynek (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1951), 352.
 Hans Petterson, “Cosmic spherules and meteoritic dust,” Scientific American 202:123-129 (February 1960).
 D. Russell Humphreys, “The earth’s magnetic field is still losing energy,” Creation Research Society Quarterly 39(1):3-13 (June 2002); archived at http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/39/39_1/GeoMag.htm; Thomas G. Barnes, Origin and Destiny of the Earth’s Magnetic Field, 2nd ed. (El Cajon: Institute for Creation Research, 1983).
 See also Donald DeYoung, Astronomy and the Bible, (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1989), 18; and Jonathan D. Sarfati, “The earth’s magnetic field: evidence that the earth is young,” Creation Ex Nihilo 20(2):15-19 (March-May 1998); archived at http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/760/.
 With complexity comes an increased number of variables, and with enough possibilities, anything can happen; see D. Russell Humphreys, “Can evolutionists now explain the Earth’s Magnetic Field?” Creation Research Society Quarterly 33(3):184-185 (December 1996).
 Robert E. Lee, “Radiocarbon: ages in error.” Anthropological Journal of Canada (Ottawa) 19(3):9 (1981).
 The public, which ultimately pays for all this research, is generally quite unaware of the unbelievable circularity in the procedure for submitting samples to laboratories for C14 analysis. The investigator is first asked what date he will accept; then, when a figure is obtained that comes near this date, it is duly reported together with the tolerance value, and these figures become sacrosanct, reported in journal after journal, year after year. Ogden, the director of a radiocarbon laboratory, has made the remarkable confession: “It may come as a shock to some, but fewer than 50 percent of the radiocarbon dates from geological and archaeological samples in northeastern North America have been adopted as ‘acceptable’ by investigators.” [J. Ogden, “The use and abuse of radiocarbon.” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 288:167 (1977).]
 Larry Vardiman, The Age of the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Study of the Helium Flux through the Atmosphere (El Cajon: Institute for Creation Research, 1990); see also J. D. Sarfati, “Blowing old-earth belief away: helium gives evidence that the earth is young,” Creation Ex Nihilo 20(3):19-21, (June-August 1998); archived at http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/774/.
 Melvin A. Cook, “Where is the Earth’s radiogenic helium?” Nature 179:213 (26 January 1957); “What happened to the Earth’s helium?” New Scientist 24:631-632 (3 December 1964).
 R. V. Gentry, G. L. Glish, and E. H. McBay, “Differential helium retention in zircons: implications for nuclear waste containment,” Geophysical Research Letters 9(10):1129-1130 (October 1982).
 Steven A. Austin and John D. Morris, “Tight folds and clastic dikes as evidence for rapid deposition and deformation of two very thick stratigraphic sequences,” Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism, vol. II (Pittsburgh: Creation Science Fellowship, 1986), 3-15; available from http://www.icc03.org/proceedings.htm; see also Brown, “The Hydroplate Theory: An Overview,” in In the Beginning, 87-119.
 Ariel Roth, Origins: Linking Science and Scripture (Hagerstown: Review and Herald Publishing, 1998), 264.
 “North America is now being eroded at a rate that could level it in a mere 10 million years…” Robert H. Dott Jr. and Roger L. Batten, Evolution of the Earth, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981), 133); George C. Kennedy, “The origin of continents, mountain ranges, and ocean basins,” American Scientist 47:491-504 (December 1959).
 Evolutionists have retorted with condescension that creationists are simply ignorant of replenishing mechanisms such as lava flows, delta and continental shelf buildup (from eroded material), coral reef buildup, and uplift from colliding tectonic plates. However, this overlooks the fact that uplift balancing the erosion would mean that the mountains would have been eroded and replaced many times over in 2.5 billion years. Thus, there should be no ancient sediments in mountainous areas; however, sediments of all ages from young to old (by evolutionary dating methods) are found mountainous regions. This clearly contradicts an old earth.
 Ariel Roth, Origins, p. 272; see also C. D. Ollier and M. J. F. Brown, “Erosion of a young volcano in New Guinea, Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 15:12-28 (1971).
 J. D. Milliman and J. P. M. Syvitski, “Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: the importance of small mountainous rivers,” The Journal of Geology, vol. 100, pp. 525-544 (1992).
 W. W. Hay, et al., “Mass/age distribution and composition of sediments on the ocean floor and the global rate of sediment subduction,” Journal of Geophysical Research, 93(B12):14,933-14,940 (10 December 1988).
 See also Steven A. Austin, “Evolution: the ocean says no!” Symposium on Creation V (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1975), 77-83; archived at http://www.icr.org/article/56/.
 John N. Holeman, “The sediment yield of major rivers of the world,” Water Resources Research 4:737 (August 1968); and F. L. Sayles and P. C. Mangelsdorf, “Cation-exchange characteristics of Amazon River suspended sediment and its reaction with seawater,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 43:767-779 (1979); see also M. Meybeck, “Concentrations des eaux fluviales en elements majeurs et apports en solution aux oceans,” Revue de Géologie Dynamique et de Géographie Physique 21(3):215 (1979).
 Steven A. Austin and D. Russell Humphreys, “The sea’s missing salt: a dilemma for evolutionists,” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism, vol. II, (Pittsburgh: Creation Science Fellowship, 1991), 17-33; available at http://www.icc03.org/proceedings.htm; see also Jonathan D. Sarfati, “Salty seas: evidence for a young earth,” Creation Ex Nihilo 21(1):16-17 (December 1998-February 1999); archived at http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/578/.
 This is based on the standard accretion of sodium at ~457 million tons/year being reduced to 356 million tons/year, and the removal of sodium at ~122 million tons/year being raised to 206 million tons/year, the maximum upper and lower limits (see Austin and Humphreys, “The sea’s missing salt: a dilemma for evolutionists”).
 Peter G. Brewer, “Minor elements in sea water,” Chemical Oceanography, editors J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow, vol. 1, 2nd ed. (New York: Academic Press, 1975), 427; see also Steven A. Austin, “Evolution: the oceans say no!”
 “It has been estimated that just four volcanoes spewing lava at the rate observed for Paricutín [a Mexican volcano that erupted in 1943] and continuing for five billion years could almost account for the volume of the continental crusts.” [William D. Stansfield, Science of Evolution (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977), 81]; see also Ariel A. Roth, “Some questions about geochronology,” Origins, 13(2):75-76 (1986).