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Giving Context Part 2

Giving Context Part 2

Olivet Discourse Seminar – Session 1 Part 2

 

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In the Olivet Discourse (Matthew 24/Mark 13/Luke 21), Jesus outlines some of the key signs that will let us know when we have entered the last generation before He returns. A clear understanding of the Olivet Discourse (Matthew 24/Mark 13/Luke 21), therefore, is especially essential for believers living at the end of the age. In Session 1 Part 1 of the Olivet Discourse seminar, we work through a number of key passages that give context to Jesus’ teaching on the Mount of Olives. Join us as we explore the Old Testament foundations presupposed by both Jesus and the apostles in the Olivet Discourse.

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For teaching notes PDF see Giving Context Part 1

Giving Context

LUKE 17

LUKE 17

A.    Luke 17

20 Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, “The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, 21 nor will people say, ‘Here it is,’ or ‘There it is,’ because the kingdom of God is within you” (Gk. eimi entos humon; NIV/NKJV/KJV – “is within you”; NRSV/NLT – “is among you”; ESV – “in the midst of you”; NASB – “in your midst”; the “you” is plural).  22 Then he said to his disciples, “The time is coming when you will long to see one of the days of the Son of Man, but you will not see it. 23 Men will tell you, ‘There he is!’ or ‘Here he is!’ Do not go running off after them. 24 For the Son of Man in his day will be like the lightning, which flashes and lights up the sky from one end to the other. 25 But first he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. 26 “Just as it was in the days of Noah, so also will it be in the days of the Son of Man…(NIV Lk. 17:20-26).

  • But we know where this man is from (Gk. eimi, “comes from” ESV/NLT); when the Christ comes, no one will know where he is from (Gk. eimi, “comes from” ESV/NLT).”28 Then Jesus, still teaching in the temple courts, cried out, “Yes, you know me, and you know where I am from (Gk. eimi, “come from” ESV/NLT). I am not here on my own, but he who sent me is true. You do not know him, 29 but I know him because I am from (Gk. eimi, “come from” ESV/NLT) him and he sent me.” (NIV John 7:27-29)
  • The kingdom of God does not come with your observation, 21 nor will people say,’Here it is,’ or ‘There it is,’ because the kingdom of God comes into your midst.” (Harrigan 17:20-21[1])

B.    Jesus contrasting His Second Coming at the end of the age with false Messianic movements of the first century

26 “So if anyone tells you, ‘There he is, out in the desert,’ (NASB/ESV – “wilderness”) do not go out; or, ‘Here he is, in the inner rooms,’ do not believe it. 27 For as lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. (NIV Mt. 24:26-27)

37 As the soldiers were about to take Paul into the barracks, he asked the commander, “May I say something to you?” “Do you speak Greek?” he replied. 38 “Aren’t you the Egyptian who started a revolt and led four thousand terrorists out into the desert some time ago?” 39 Paul answered, “I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no ordinary city. Please let me speak to the people.” (NIV Ac. 21:37-39)

35 Then he addressed them: “Men of Israel, consider carefully what you intend to do to these men. 36 Some time ago Theudas appeared, claiming to be somebody (a prophet, or the Messiah), and about four hundred men rallied to him. He was killed, all his followers were dispersed, and it all came to nothing. 37 After him, Judas the Galilean appeared in the days of the census and led a band of people in revolt. He too was killed, and all his followers were scattered. 38 Therefore, in the present case I advise you: Leave these men alone! Let them go! For if their purpose or activity is of human origin, it will fail. 39 But if it is from God, you will not be able to stop these men; you will only find yourselves fighting against God.” (NIV Ac. 5:35-39).

13 Pilate called together the chief priests, the rulers and the people, 14 and said to them, “You brought me this man as one who was inciting the people to rebellion. I have examined him in your presence and have found no basis for your charges against him. (NIV Lk. 23:13-14)

18 With one voice they cried out, “Away with this man! Release Barabbas to us!” 19 (Barabbas had been thrown into prison for an insurrection in the city, and for murder.) (Lk. 23:18-19)

C.   Examples from Josephus

  • “(261) But there was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men that were deluded by him; (262) these he led round about from the wilderness to the mount which was called the Mount of Olives, and was ready to break into Jerusalem by force from that place; and if he could but once conquer the Roman garrison and the people, he intended to domineer over them by the assistance of those guards of his that were to break into the city with him, (263) but Felix prevented his attempt, and met him with his Roman soldiers, while all the people assisted him in his attack upon them, insomuch that, when it came to a battle, the Egyptian ran away, with a few others, while the greatest part of those that were with him were either destroyed or taken alive; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed every one to their own homes and there concealed themselves.”[2]
  • “(97) Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas [different Theudas from the one in Acts 5:36-37],  persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; (98) and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. (99) This was what befell the Jews in the time of Cuspius Fadus’s government.[3]
  • “5. (160) Now, as for the affairs of the Jews, they grew worse and worse continually; for the country was again filled with robbers and impostors, who deluded the multitude….6. (167) These works, that were done by the robbers, filled the city with all sorts of impiety. And now these impostors and deceivers  persuaded the multitude to follow them into the wilderness, (168) and pretended that they would exhibit manifest wonders and signs, that should be performed by the providence of God. And many that were prevailed on by them suffered the punishments of their folly; for Felix brought them back, and then punished them. (169) Moreover, there came out of Egypt [cf. Ac. 21:38] about this time to Jerusalem, one that said he was a prophet, and advised the multitude of the common people to go along with him to the Mount of Olives, as it was called, which lay over against the city, and at the distance of five furlongs. (170) He said farther, that he would show them from hence, how, at his command, the walls of Jerusalem would fall down; and he promised that he would procure them an entrance into the city through those walls, when they were fallen down. (171) Now when Felix was informed of these things, he ordered his soldiers to take their weapons, and came against them with a great number of horsemen and footmen, from Jerusalem, and attacked the Egyptian and the people that were with him. He also slew four hundred of them, and took two hundred alive. (172) But the Egyptian himself escaped out of the fight, but did not appear any more. And again the robbers stirred up the people to make war with the Romans, and said they ought not to obey them at all; and when any persons would not comply with them, they set fire to their villages, and plundered them.[4]
  • “2. (281) And now the Romans, judging that it was in vain to spare what was round about the holy house, burnt all those places, as also the remains of the cloisters, and the gates, two excepted; the one on the east side, and the other on the south; both which, however, they burnt afterward. (282) They also burnt down the treasury chambers, in which was an immense quantity of money, and an immense number of garments, and other precious goods, there reposited; and to speak all in a few words, there it was that the entire riches of the Jews were heaped up together, while the rich people had there built themselves chambers [to contain such furniture]. (283) The soldiers also came to the rest of the cloisters that were in the outer [court of the] temple, whither the women and children, and a great mixed multitude of the people fed, in number about six thousand. (284) But before Caesar had determined anything about these people, or given the commanders any orders relating to them, the soldiers were in such a rage, that they set the cloister on fire; by which means it came to pass that some of these were destroyed by throwing themselves down headlong, and some were burnt in the cloisters themselves. Nor did any one of them escape with his life. (285) A false prophet was the occasion of these people’s destruction, who had made a public proclamation in the city that very day, that God commanded them to get up upon the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. (286) Now, there was then a great number of false prophets suborned by the tyrants to impose upon the people, who denounced this to them, that they should wait for deliverance from God: and this was in order to keep them from deserting, and that they might be buoyed up above fear and care by such hopes. (287) Now, a man that is in adversity does easily comply with such promises; for when a such a seducer makes him believe that he shall be delivered from those miseries which oppress him, then it is that the patient is full of hopes of such deliverance.[5]
  • “3. (288) Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as belied God himself; while they did not attend, nor give credit, to the signs that were so evident and did so plainly foretell their future desolation; but, like men infatuated, without either eyes to see, or minds to consider, did not regard the denunciations that God made to them. (289) Thus there was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year. (290) Thus also, before the Jews’ rebellion, and before those commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], and at the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day time; which light lasted for half an hour.”[6]
  • Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church – “Under the last governors, Felix, Festus, Albinus, and Florus, moral corruption and the dissolution of all social ties, but at the same time the oppressiveness of the Roman yoke, increased every year. After the accession of Felix, assassins, called “Sicarians” (from sica, a dagger), armed with daggers and purchasable for any crime, endangering safety in city and country, roamed over Palestine. Besides this, the party spirit among the Jews themselves, and their hatred of their heathen oppressors, rose to the most insolent political and religious fanaticism, and was continually inflamed by false prophets and Messiahs, one of whom, for example, according to Josephus, drew after him thirty thousand men. Thus came to pass what our Lord had predicted: ‘There shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall lead many astray.’”[7]

D.   The kingdom of God comes into the midst of Israel in power from the heavens above when the Messiah returns

20 Once, having been asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, Jesus replied, “The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation (i.e. they were observing the sky for the Day of the Lord signs in their generation, but they awaited a future one, cf. vs. 25; also, they were observing the desert, keeping their eye out for the Messiah), 21 nor will people say, ‘Here it is,’ or ‘There it is,’ because the kingdom of God comes into your midst (from above, from the heavens, cf. vv. 23-24).  22 Then he said to his disciples, “The time is coming when you will long to see one of the days of the Son of Man, but you will not see it. 23 Men will tell you, ‘There he is!’ or ‘Here he is!’ Do not go running off after them. 24 For the Son of Man in his day will be like the lightning, which flashes and lights up the sky from one end to the other. 25 But first he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation.

This is what the Lord says to me: “As a lion growls, a great lion over his prey— and though a whole band of shepherds is called together against him, he is not frightened by their shouts or disturbed by their clamor— so the Lord Almighty will come down to do battle on Mount Zion and on its heights. 5 Like birds hovering overhead, the Lord Almighty will shield Jerusalem; he will shield it and deliver it, he will ‘pass over’ it and will rescue it.” Return to him you have so greatly revolted against, O Israelites. For in that day every one of you will reject the idols of silver and gold your sinful hands have made. 8 “Assyria will fall by a sword that is not of man; a sword, not of mortals, will devour them (the Anti-Christ armies, cf. Mic. 5, Is. 10). They will flee before the sword and their young men will be put to forced labor. (NIV Is. 31:4-8)

14 Then the Lord will appear over them; his arrow will flash like lightning. The Sovereign Lord will sound the trumpet; he will march in the storms of the south, 15 and the Lord Almighty will shield them. They will destroy and overcome with slingstones. They will drink and roar as with wine; they will be full like a bowl used for sprinkling the corners of the altar. 16The Lord their God will save them on that day as the flock of his people. They will sparkle in his land like jewels in a crown. 17 How attractive and beautiful they will be! Grain will make the young men thrive, and new wine the young women. (NIV Zech. 9:14-17)

 


[1] John Harrigan, notes on “The Gospel of the Kingdom,” Biblical Theology Seminar. <http://danielinstitute.org/media.php?pageID=30&itemID=101 >.

[2] Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1996, c1987). The works of Josephus : Complete and unabridged. Includes index. (Wars 2.260-263). Peabody: Hendrickson.

[3]Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1996, c1987). The works of Josephus : Complete and unabridged. Includes index. (Ant 20.96-99). Peabody: Hendrickson.

[4]Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1996, c1987). The works of Josephus : Complete and unabridged. Includes index. (Ant 20.159-172). Peabody: Hendrickson.

[5]Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1996, c1987). The works of Josephus : Complete and unabridged. Includes index. (Wars 6.280-287). Peabody: Hendrickson.

[6]Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1996, c1987). The works of Josephus : Complete and unabridged. Includes index. (Wars 6.287-290). Peabody: Hendrickson.

[7]Schaff, P., & Schaff, D. S. (1997). History of the Christian church. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

KEY PASSAGES IN DANIEL

KEY PASSAGES IN DANIEL

A.    Before working through the Olivet Discourse, it is also important to have a clear grasp of some key passages in the Book of Daniel related to something called “the abomination of desolation.”

B.    Daniel 9 Context

1In the first year of Darius son of Xerxes (a Mede by descent), who was made ruler over the Babylonian  kingdom— in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation (Zion “empty” of her sons) of Jerusalem would last seventy years. So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes. I prayed to the Lord my God and confessed: “O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps his covenant of love with all who love him and obey his commands, we have sinned and done wrong. We have been wicked and have rebelled; we have turned away from your commands and laws (in the Torah). We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes and our fathers, and to all the people of the land. “Lord, you are righteous, but this day we are covered with shame—the men of Judah and people of Jerusalem and all Israel, both near and far, in all the countries where you have scattered us because of our unfaithfulness to you. O Lord, we and our kings, our princes and our fathers are covered with shame because we have sinned against you. The Lord our God is merciful and forgiving, even though we have rebelled against him; 10 we have not obeyed the Lord our God or kept the laws he gave us through his servants the prophets. 11 All Israel has transgressed your law and turned away, refusing to obey you. “Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses (e.g. Deut. 28:15-68), the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against you. 12 You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing upon us great disaster. Under the whole heaven nothing has ever been done like what has been done to Jerusalem. 13 Just as it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us, yet we have not sought the favor of the Lord our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to your truth. 14 The Lord did not hesitate to bring the disaster upon us, for the Lord our God is righteous in everything he does; yet we have not obeyed him. 15 “Now, O Lord our God, who brought your people out of Egypt with a mighty hand and who made for yourself a name that endures to this day, we have sinned, we have done wrong. 16 O Lord, in keeping with all your righteous acts, turn away your anger and your wrath from Jerusalem, your city, your holy hill. Our sins and the iniquities of our fathers have made Jerusalem and your people an object of scorn to all those around us. 17 “Now, our God, hear the prayers and petitions of your servant. For your sake, O Lord, look with favor on your desolate sanctuary. 18 Give ear, O God, and hear; open your eyes and see the desolation of the city that bears your Name(note that desolate primarily is referring to the fact that Zion is not inhabited by her children. This was initially caused by her destruction, but the lament is for the entire period where her children are absent). We do not make requests of you because we are righteous, but because of your great mercy. 19 O Lord, listen! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, hear and act! For your sake, O my God, do not delay, because your city and your people bear your Name.”  (NIV Dan. 9:1-16)

C.   Daniel 9 Prophetic Timeline

20 While I was speaking and praying, confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and making my request to the Lord my God for his holy hill— 21 while I was still in prayer, Gabriel, the man I had seen in the earlier vision, came to me in swift flight about the time of the evening sacrifice. 22 He instructed me and said to me, “Daniel, I have now come to give you insight and understanding. 23 As soon as you began to pray, an answer was given, which I have come to tell you, for you are highly esteemed. Therefore, consider the message and understand the vision: 24 “Seventy ‘sevens’ (NIV note/most other translations – “weeks”; weeks of years[1]; 7 heptads of years=1 Jubilee Cycle) are decreed for your people and your holy city to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy (cf. 1 Cor. 13:8, 12) and to anoint the most holy. 25 “Know and understand this: From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem (under Cyrus[2] Is. 44:28) until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven ‘sevens,’ and sixty-two ‘sevens.’ It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble.

  • 18 “ ‘If after all this you will not listen to me, I will punish you for your sins seven times over. 19 I will break down your stubborn pride and make the sky above you like iron and the ground beneath you like bronze. 20 Your strength will be spent in vain, because your soil will not yield its crops, nor will the trees of the land yield their fruit. 21 “ ‘If you remain hostile toward me and refuse to listen to me, I will multiply your afflictions seven times over, as your sins deserve. 22 I will send wild animals against you, and they will rob you of your children, destroy your cattle and make you so few in number that your roads will be deserted. 23 “ ‘If in spite of these things you do not accept my correction but continue to be hostile toward me, 24 I myself will be hostile toward you and will afflict you for your sins seven times over. 25 And I will bring the sword upon you to avenge the breaking of the covenant. When you withdraw into your cities, I will send a plague among you, and you will be given into enemy hands. (NIVLev. 26:18-25)
  • “ ‘Count off seven sabbaths of years—seven times seven years—so that the seven sabbaths of years amount to a period of forty-nine years. Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the Day of Atonement sound the trumpet throughout your land. 10 Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you; each one of you is to return to his family property and each to his own clan. 11 The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not sow and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines. …13 “ ‘In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return to his own property. …39 “ ‘If one of your countrymen becomes poor among you and sells himself to you, do not make him work as a slave. 40 He is to be treated as a hired worker or a temporary resident among you; he is to work for you until the Year of Jubilee. 41 Then he and his children are to be released, and he will go back to his own clan and to the property of his forefathers. 42 Because the Israelites are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt, they must not be sold as slaves. (NIVLev. 25:8-11, 13, 39)

D.   Daniel 9:26-27 Masoretic Text and the Septuagint (LXX)

“The Sopherim (from Hebrew meaning “scribes”) were the Jewish scholars and custodians of the Old Testament text between the fifth and the third centuries b.c. whose responsibility it was to standardize and preserve it. They were followed by the Zugoth (“pairs” of textual scholars) in the second and first centuries b.c. The third group were Tannaim (“repeaters” or “teachers”),whose work extended to a.d. 200. The work of Tannaim can be found in the Midrash (“textual interpretation”), Tosefta (“addition”), and Talmud (“instruction”), which latter is divided into Mishnah (“repetitions”) and Gemara (“the matter to be learned”). The Talmud gradually was written between a.d. 100 and 500. Between a.d. 500 and 950 the Masoretes added the vowel pointings and pronunciation marks to the consonantal Hebrew text received from the Sopherim, on the basis of the Masora (“tradition”) that had been handed down to them. The Masoretes were scribes who codified and wrote down the oral criticisms and remarks on the Hebrew text. There were two major schools or centers of Masoretic activity, each largely independent of the other, the Babylonian and the Palestinian. The most famous Masoretes were the Jewish scholars living in Tiberias in Galilee, Moses ben Asher (with his son Aaron) and Moses ben Naphtali, in the late ninth and tenth centuries a.d. The ben Asher text is the standard text for the Hebrew Bible today as best represented by Codex Leningradensis B 19A (L) and the Aleppo Codex.” [3]

Daniel 9:26-27 – English Translations Based on the Masoretic Text

NIV

ESV

KJV

NASB

26 After the sixty-two ‘sevens,’ the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing (NIV note. – Or off and will have no one; or off, but not for himself). The people of the ruler who will come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come like a flood: War will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed. 26 And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off and shall have nothing. And the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its (ESV note – Or his) end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war. Desolations are decreed. 26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. 26 “Then after the sixty-two weeks the Messiah will be cut off and have nothing (NASB note – or no one), and the people of the prince who is to come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. And its (NASB note – or his) end will come with a flood; even to the end there will be war (NASB note – Or war will be decreed for desolations); desolations are determined.
27 He will confirm a covenant with many for one ‘seven.’ In the middle of the ‘seven’ he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on a wing of the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him (NIV note – Or it)” (NIV alternative in note – Or And one who causes desolation will come upon the pinnacle of the abominable temple, until the end that is decreed is poured out on the desolated city.) 27 And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one week, and for half of the week he shall put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate, until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator.” 27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate. 27 “And he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering; and on the wing of abominations (NASB note – Or detestable things) will come one who makes desolate (NASB note – Or causes horror), even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate.” (NASB note – Or causes horror)

E.    Daniel 9:26-27 LXX (Theodotion and Old Greek)

“The lxx translations are valuable for four major reasons among others: (1) they are a witness to the influence of Hellenism on Judaism both in the Diaspora and in Palestine; (2) they form a linguistic bridgehead between the theological vocabulary of the OT and that of the NT; (3) they were the translations in which the church Fathers read their OT in the centuries when they were building their formal theologies; (4) they are an important part of the evidence for the reconstruction of the history of the text of the Heb. OT. The translators undoubtedly sometimes had before them a Heb. text superior to the MT; and the NT itself sometimes (e.g. in Heb. 11:21 follows the lxx rather than the MT. Moreover the Dead Sea Scrolls have shown us that the Lxx’s disagreements with the MT are more often based on non-MT-type Heb. Mss than some scholars had previously thought. On the other hand the fact that some ancient Heb. ms agrees with the lxx against the MT, does not necessarily mean that ms automatically represents the original better than the MT does. The matter still has to be decided by the ordinary canons of textual criticism.”[4]

“Theodotion (Θεοδοτίων, gen.: Θεοδοτίωνος; d. ca. AD 200) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar, perhaps working in Ephesus, who in ca. AD 150 translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek. Whether he was revising the Septuagint, or was working from Hebrew manuscripts that represented a parallel tradition that has not survived, is debated. In the 2nd century Theodotion’s text was quoted in the Shepherd of Hermas and in the Christian apologist Justin Martyr‘s Trypho. His finished version, which filled some lacunae in the Septuagint version of the Book of Jeremiah and Book of Job, formed one column in Origen of Alexandria‘s Hexapla, ca. AD 240. (The Hexapla, now only extant in fragments, presented six Hebrew and Greek texts side-by-side: two Greek versions, by Aquila and Symmachus, preceding the Septuagint, and Theodotion’s version following it, apparently reflecting a contemporary understanding of their historical sequence.) Theodotion’s translation was so widely copied in the Early Christian church that its version of the Book of Daniel virtually superseded the Septuagint’s. Jerome (in his preface to Daniel, AD 407) records the rejection of the Septuagint’s version of that book in Christian usage. Jerome’s preface also mentions that the Hexapla had notations in it, indicating several major differences in content between the Theodotion Daniel and the earlier versions in Greek and Hebrew. However, Theodotion’s Daniel is closer to the modern Hebrew Masoretic Text version (the Hebrew text said to have been finalized ca. AD 130), that is the basis for most modern translations. Theodotion’s Daniel is also the one embodied in the authorised edition of the Septuagint published by Sixtus V in 1587.” [5]

Charles Thomson’s English Translation (1808) (Theodotion)

Brenton’s English Translation (1851)(Theodotion)

NETS (Theodotion)

26 and these times shall be emptied out, and after the sixty two weeks, the Messiah shall be cut off, though there is no crime in him; and he, with the ruler who is coming, will destroy the city and the sanctuary. They shall be destroyed with a deluge, and even to the end of the war determined on in course, with 26 And after the sixty-two weeks, the anointed one shall be destroyed, and there is no judgment in him: and he shall destroy the city and the sanctuary with the prince that is coming: they shall be cut off with a flood, and to the end of the war which is rapidly completed he shall appoint the city to desolations. 26And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointing will be destroyed, and there is not judgment in it. And it (or he) will destroy the city and the sanctuary along with the leader who is to come. And they will be cut off by a flood, and there will be annihilations to the finish of a shortened war.
27desolations. Now one week shall confirm a covenant for many and in the half of that week my sacrifice and libation shall be taken away. And upon the temple shall be an abomination of the desolations, and at the end of a time, an end shall be put to that desolation. 27And one week shall establish the covenant with many: and in the midst of the week my sacrifice and drink-offering shall be taken away: and on the temple shall be the abomination of desolations; and at the end of time an end shall be put to the desolation. 27And it (or he) will strengthen a covenant with many, one week, and by half of the week sacrifice and libation will cease, and in the temple there will be an abomination of desolations even until a consummation, and a consummation will be given for the desolation.”

F.    Daniel 9:26 Hebrew Interlinear[6]

After the fall of Jerusalem (70), Tiberias became one of the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine. It was for more than three hundred years their metropolis. From about 150 the Sanhedrin settled here, and established rabbinical schools, which rose to great celebrity. Here the Jerusalem (or Palestinian) Talmud was compiled about the beginning of the fifth century. To this same rabbinical school also we are indebted for the Masora, a “body of traditions which transmitted the readings of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and preserved, by means of the vowel-system, the pronunciation of the Hebrew.” In its original form, and in all manuscripts, the Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it ceased to be a spoken language, the importance of knowing what vowels to insert between the consonants. This is supplied by the Masora, and hence these vowels are called the “Masoretic vowel-points.”[7]

 Diagram1-Daniel-Language-Comparison

Diagram2-Daniel-Genesis-Language-Comparison

26 And after the sixty-two ‘sevens,’ the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing . And the city and the holy place he will destroy with the ruler who will come. The end will come like a flood: War will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed (Author Dan. 9:26, cf. LXX Brenton ,Thomson, NETS)

G.   Daniel 9 LXX with commentary

And after the sixty-two weeks, the anointed one shall be destroyed, and there is no judgment  (condemnation; Thomson “no crime”) in him: and he (the anointed one or Messiah, sovereign over kingdoms) shall destroy the city and the sanctuary with the prince (through the instrumentality of a Gentile army, cf. De 28:49-52; 2Ki 24:2;2Ch 36:6,17; Jer 1:15,16, 4:6,8 5:15, 6:22,23, 21:4, 25:9, Hab. 1) that is coming : they (the city and the temple) shall be cut off with a flood, and to the end of the war which is rapidly completed (Gk. “soontemno” – 1 to cut in pieces. 2 to cut short[8] cf. NETS “to the finish of a shortened war”; cf. Mat. 24:22) he  (the Messiah) shall appoint the city to desolations. And one week (7 years) shall establish the covenant (the everlasting covenant; at end of first 3.5 betrothal, at end of second 3.5 consummation; or “he will establish”) with many (nations, cf. Is. 53:, Rom. 5:12-20, Rom. 11:25-26): and in the midst of the week (first 3.5, Jesus’ ministry) my sacrifice and drink-offering shall be taken away (Messiah crucified, cf. Heb. 8-10): and on the temple (Gk. hieros – the holy; holy people? holy land? holy temple?) shall be the abomination of desolations (after the crucifixion, the armies of vs. 26 would surround Jerusalem, cf. Lk. 19:43, 21:20); and at the end of time (when the “times of the Gentiles” are complete and the fullness of the Gentile harvest has come in, cfl Lk. 21:24, Rom. 11:25-26) an end shall be put to the desolation (of Jerusalem, cf. Lk. 21:24) (Brenton LXXDan. 9:26-27, cf. NIV note, KJV, and Interlinear translation above).

  • 31 At that time some Pharisees came to Jesus and said to him, “Leave this place and go somewhere else. Herod wants to kill you.” 32 He replied, “Go tell that fox, ‘I will drive out demons and heal people today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will reach my goal.’ 33 In any case, I must keep going today and tomorrow and the next day—for surely no prophet can die outside Jerusalem! 34 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! 35 Look, your house is left to you desolate. I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’” (NIVLk. 13:31-35)
  • 41 As he approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it 42 and said, “If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace (the death or “cutting off” of the Messiah)—but now it is hidden from your eyes. 43 The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. 44 They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God’s coming to you (the cause of Jerusalem’s destruction in 70AD was their rejection of Jesus as Messiah).” (NIVLk. 19:41-44).
  • 1Jesus spoke to them again in parables, saying: “The kingdom of heaven is like a king who prepared a wedding banquet for his son. He sent his servants to those who had been invited to the banquet (Israel) to tell them to come, but they refused to come. “Then he sent some more servants and said, ‘Tell those who have been invited that I have prepared my dinner: My oxen and fattened cattle have been butchered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.’ “But they paid no attention and went off—one to his field, another to his business. The rest seized his servants, mistreated them and killed them. The king was enraged. He sent his army and destroyed those murderers and burned their city. “Then he said to his servants (the apostles and his other disciples in Israel), ‘The wedding banquet is ready, but those I invited did not deserve to come. Go to the street corners and invite to the banquet anyone you find.’ (the Gentiles – the “covenant with many”) 10 So the servants went out into the streets and gathered all the people they could find, both good and bad, and the wedding hall was filled with guests. 11 “But when the king came in to see the guests, he noticed a man there who was not wearing wedding clothes (i.e. robes not washed in the blood of the Lamb, cf. Rev. 7:14). 12 ‘Friend,’ he asked, ‘how did you get in here without wedding clothes?’ The man was speechless. 13 “Then the king told the attendants, ‘Tie him hand and foot, and throw him outside, into the darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ 14 “For many are invited, but few are chosen.” (NIVMt. 22:1-14)
  • 30 I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming, and he has nothing in Me (cf. Dan. 9;26 – “no judgment in him,” no condemnation, no crime; He was spotless). 31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave Me commandment, so I do. Arise, let us go from here. (NKJVJn. 14:30-31)
  • 33 “You snakes! You brood of vipers! How will you escape being condemned to hell? 34 Therefore I am sending you prophets and wise men and teachers. Some of them you will kill and crucify; others you will flog in your synagogues and pursue from town to town. 35 And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. 36 I tell you the truth, all this will come upon this generation. 37 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing. 38 Look, your house is left to you desolate. 39 For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’” (NIV Mt. 23:33-39)
  • 26 As they led him away, they seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus. 27 A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. 28 Jesus turned and said to them, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. 29 For the time will come when you will say, ‘Blessed are the barren women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!’ 30 Then “ ‘they will say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!” ’ (Hos. 10:8)31 For if men do these things when the tree is green (time of abundance and fruitfulness, i.e. Jesus’ ministry), what will happen when it is dry?” (i.e. when the crisis comes) (NIV Lk. 23:26-31)
  • 25 I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. 27 And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.” (NIV Rom. 11:25-27)
  • 11 After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light of life and be satisfied (NIV note – Or (with Masoretic Text) He will see the result of the suffering of his soul / and be satisfied); by his knowledge (NIV note – Or by knowledge of him) my righteous servant will justify many (nations, cf. Rom. 5), and he will bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore I will give him a portion (portion=inheritance, cf. e.g. Deut. 32:9, Josh. 17:14, 19:9, 1 Chron. 16:18, Is. 61:7) among the great (NIV note – Or many; Heb. rab – many; i.e. I will give Him an inheritance among the many nations, cf. Eph. 1:18) and he will divide (i.e. share) the spoils with the strong (NIV note – Or numerous),because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many (Heb. rab), and made intercession for the transgressors (NIV Is. 53:11-12).
  • 18 I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints (NIV Eph. 1:18)
  • 17 Now if we are children, then we are heirs—heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory (NIV Rom. 8:16-17)
  • 13 And you also were included in Christ when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. Having believed, you were marked in him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit, 14 who is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance until the redemption of those who are God’s possession—to the praise of his glory. (NIV Eph. 1:13-14)
  • 12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men (i.e. both Jew and Gentile), because all sinned— 13 for before the law was given, sin was in the world (sin a universal problem, so all nations need to be redeemed). But sin is not taken into account when there is no law (therefore, God gave Israel the Law). 14 Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was a pattern of the one to come. 15 But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many (nations) died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many (nations)! (NIVRom. 15:12-15)

H.   What about the last 3.5 years? – Daniel 12

1“At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise (Heb. “amad (763c); a prim. root; to take one’s stand, stand”[9]). There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But (NKJV/NASB/KJV – “and”) at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered (cf. Rev. 10, 12). Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. Those who are wisewill shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever. But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge.” Then I, Daniel, looked, and there before me stood two others, one on this bank of the river and one on the opposite bank. One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long will it be before these astonishing things (vv. 1-3) are fulfilled?” The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, lifted his right hand and his left hand toward heaven (cf. Rev. 10), and I heard him swear by him who lives forever, saying, “It will be for a time, times and half a time (NIV note – Or a year, two years, and half a year). When the power of the holy people has been finally broken, all these things will be completed.” I heard, but I did not understand. So I asked, “My lord, what will the outcome of all this be?” He replied, “Go your way, Daniel, because the words are closed up and sealed until the time of the end. 10 Many will be purified, made spotless and refined, but the wicked will continue to be wicked. None of the wicked will understand, but those who are wise will understand. 11 “From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up (Heb. nawthan – alternate translations – “given,” “appointed,” “placed”[10]; YLT – “the giving out of the desolating abomination”), there will be 1,290 days. 12 Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1,335 days. 13 “As for you, go your way till the end. You will rest, and then at the end of the days you will rise to receive your allotted inheritance.”  (NIV Dan. 12:1-13)

5 And she gave birth to a male son, who is to “shepherd” all the nations “with a rod of iron.” And her child was taken up to God and His throne. 6 And the woman escaped into the wilderness where she has a place there, having been prepared from God, so that they (a – see Warner note a below) may be nourishing her there a thousand two hundred sixty days.7 And there was war in heaven. Michael and his messengers fought the dragon, and the dragon fought and his messengers…(Tim Warner Rev. 12:5-6).

Tim Warner commentary – (a) “The context seems to imply a connection to Michael and his angels in verse 7. Psalm 78:24-25 refers to the manna in the wilderness as “angel’s food.” Psalm 91, which is a prophecy about this event, says God will “give his angels charge over you.” Daniel 12:1 refers to the “time of trouble,” and says that Michael will “stand up” and God’s people will be “delivered.” Finally, Hebrews 1 refers to Christ’s Kingdom, and says the angels are “ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who are about to inherit salvation” (Heb.1:14). Therefore, the protection and provision of the redeemed during the 1260 days will be the responsibility of Michael and his angels.”[11]

 


[1]7620 שָׁבוּעַ, שְׁבוּעָה [shabuwa`, shabua`, shâbu`ah /shaw·boo·ah/] n m. Properly, pass part of 7650 as a denom. of 7651; TWOT 2318d; GK 8651 and 8652; 20 occurrences; AV translates as “week” 19 times, and “seven” once. 1 seven, period of seven (days or years), heptad, week. 1a period of seven days, a week. 1a1 Feast of Weeks. 1b heptad, seven (of years). Strong, J. (1996). The exhaustive concordance of the Bible : Showing every word of the text of the common English version of the canonical books, and every occurrence of each word in regular order. (electronic ed.) (H7620). Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship.

[2] See Tim Warner, “Daniel’s 70 Weeks On Second Thought,” <http://www.oasischristianchurch.org/air/70weeks.pdf>

[3] Geisler, N. L., & Nix, W. E. (1996, c1986). A general introduction to the Bible. Includes indexes. Includes a short-title checklist of English translations of the Bible (chronologically arranged). (Rev. and expanded.) (371). Chicago: Moody Press.

[4]Wood, D. R. W., & Marshall, I. H. (1996). New Bible dictionary (3rd ed.) (1172). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

[6] For more, see “Alternate Transliteration of Daniel 9:26,” <http://shalach.org/Rapture/Daniel%209-26.htm>.

[7]Easton, M. (1996, c1897). Easton’s Bible dictionary. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[8]Strongs Concordance – “4932 συντέμνω [suntemno /soon·tem·no/] v. From 4862 and the base of 5114; GK 5335; Two occurrences; AV translates as “cut short” once, and “short” once. 1 to cut in pieces. 2 to cut short. 3 metaph. 3a to dispatch briefly, execute or finish quickly. 3b to hasten. 3c a short word i.e. an expedited prophecy or decree.” Strong, J. (1996). The exhaustive concordance of the Bible : Showing every word of the text of the common English version of the canonical books, and every occurrence of each word in regular order. (electronic ed.) (G4932). Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship.

[9]Thomas, R. L. (1998, 1981). New American Standard Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek dictionaries : Updated edition (H5975). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc.

[10] Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.) (DBLH 5989, #7). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[11] Tim Warner, translation of Revelation, <http://www.oasischristianchurch.org/air/LGV_Revelation.pdf>

 

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Tim Miller Tim Miller (124 Posts)

Tim is founder of the Daniel Training Network. His passion is to see followers of Christ embrace a life of the cross. He, his wife Emily, and their four children itinerate regularly as part of their ministry, and are presently living in New Mexico.


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