THE CANOPY THEORY
And God said, “Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water.” 7 So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. And it was so. 8 God called the expanse “sky.” And there was evening, and there was morning– the second day. (NIV Genesis 1:6-8)
A. Primary Aspects of the “Canopy Theory”
1. Solar Protection
a) Surrounding the earth was “a vast blanket of invisible water vapor… productive of a marvelous greenhouse effect which maintained mild temperatures from pole to pole, thus preventing air-mass circulation and the resultant rainfall (Genesis 2:5). It would certainly have had the further effect of efficiently filtering harmful radiation from space, markedly reducing the rate of somatic mutations in living cells, and, as a consequence, drastically decreasing the rate of aging and death.”
b) NASA satellites, originally created to measure ozone depletion, have confirmed far more hydroxyl (OH) in the hydrosphere than current models predict. Because radiation from the sun breaks down water (H2O) in Earth’s upper atmosphere into hydroxyl and hydrogen, a large amount of water might have previously existed.
2. Globally Mild Climate
a) It is universally assumed among the scientific community that the earth had a generally warm, tropical environment, with a fairly uniform temperature distribution, from the Carboniferous through the Miocene Period (~360-20 Ma), because of the abundance of tropical plants distributed worldwide in the fossil record.
Temperature drops at various times are used as one of the primary evidences for the “climate change” theory of dinosaur extinction.
b) It is well known that the Arctic and Antarctic have yielded an abundance of warm-climate fauna and flora, such as mammoths, woolly rhinos, musk ox, antelope, deer, bear, horse and more than 50 other species.
(1) Peter Barrett, one of the first to look for fossils in Antarctica, discovered an amphibian jaw belonging to a creature that could only have survived in a warm, damp environment. Various paleontologists have followed his lead, and almost 14,000ft up Mt. Kirkpatrick in Antarctica (400 miles from the Pole) pterosaurs, carnivorous theropods, herbivorous sauropods, and many other creatures have been found, which has sparked great controversy in the scientific community.
(2) In 1998, fossilized remains of a tropical to subtropical champsosaur, an extinct subtropical crocodilian, as well as turtles have been unearthed on Axel Heiberg Island at 79°N in the Queen Elizabeth Islands of north-eastern Canada. Though perplexing to evolutionists, such findings fit well within a young earth model.
3. Increased Magnetic Field
a) Based on its present decline in the strength (almost 10% in the last 150 years), the earth’s magnetic field before the Flood would have been far stronger, which would have acted as a shield for cosmic radiation.
b) Recently, scientists have developed a highly sensitive technique for measuring “relic magnetism.” Based on supposedly 100-million-year-old rock samples from India, scientists estimate that the Earth’s magnetic field was at that time three times stronger than it is today.
4. Increased Oxygen Level
a) Prehistoric amber bubbles
(1) In the late 80s, USGS scientists used a gas quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to analyze 300 samples of air bubbles trapped in ancient amber. The fossilized resin was from Cretaceous, Tertiary, and recent-age amber from 16 world sites, the oldest amber supposedly being about 130 Ma.
(2) Analyses of the bubbles show that the earth’s atmosphere contained 50% more oxygen than it does now (~35% vs. 21%). Some have criticized these findings, but from a creationist standpoint these findings are still relevant, since we believe those bubbles to be ~4400 years old.
b) Prehistoric insect respiration
(1) It has long been debated how giant prehistoric insects such as Meganeura could have existed on this earth, since the way oxygen is diffused through an insect’s body (via its tracheal breathing system) puts an upper limit on its body size.
(2) It was originally proposed by Harlé & Harlé (1911) that the atmosphere at one time contained more oxygen than the present 21 percent. This theory was dismissed by fellow scientists, but has recently found increasing approval.
(3) A recent study by Jon F. Harrison (Arizona State University) and his colleagues on insect respiratory systems has confirmed the necessity of higher oxygen levels to sustain prehistoric insect size.
c) Dinosaur gigantism – along with a higher plant productivity due to a raised CO2 level, many have proposed a higher oxygen content in the Earth’s atmosphere to explain dinosaur (specifically, sauropod) gigantism.
5. Increased Atmospheric Pressure
a) Canopy theorists have also postulated that this vapor layer (along with the increased oxygen level) would have increased the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the early earth, again contributing to a healthier environment.
b) For some time medical hyperbaric chambers have been used to hasten healing of skin injuries and various other ailments. While many hospitals contain chambers, professional sports teams and celebrities have increasingly been experimenting with sleeping in enhanced oxygen and high pressure, or “hyperbaric oxygen therapy” (HBOT). Around the world, evidence is mounting that these chambers can reduce infection, heal diseases, decrease stress, and enhance stamina—a classic example of which demonstrated with “Baby Jessica” McClure.
c) Prehistoric flight – physiological, biological, and aeronautical properties of ancient fliers, such as the Quetzalcoatlus, make flight impossible in the present atmosphere, yet few have endeavored to address the issue.
d) Prehistoric blood pumping – scientists are increasingly recognizing that the size and distance between the heart and brain of many dinosaurs makes pumping blood between the two impossible in the present atmosphere.
6. Experimental Support
a) Particularly interesting experiments were conducted by the late Dr. Kei Mori (d. 1990) of Keio University in Tokyo. Dr. Mori raised plants under special light that filtered out IR and UV radiation. His unique process of fiberoptic sunlight collection and transmission, called “Himawari Sunlighting,” is now marketed worldwide.At first Mori feared the filtered light would be detrimental. But after extensive experiments he claimed it could promote healing, and “because the ultraviolet is blocked, this sunlight does not fade fabrics or damage skin.”
b) One long-lived tomato plant was grown in a special nutrient-rich solution to be exhibited at the Tsukuba Expo ’85 in Japan. Under piped sunlight and a controlled atmosphere (“hydroponic culture system”), this tomato tree grew over 30ft high and yielded more than 13,000 ripe tomatoes during the six months of the Expo. Mori’s environment of filtered sunlight, enhanced carbon dioxide, and nutrient-rich liquids could be similar to the conditions on the original earth.
7. Reptilian Development – Most reptiles have the potential of growing throughout their lives. Unlike other animals, reptiles have no “cutoff” mechanism whereby it stops growing in size. So, even if reptiles lived only half as long as pre-flood men, we would expect gigantic reptiles before the flood, which in fact is the case.
1. Explanation of a mechanism for plant and animal gigantism
2. Explanation of Genesis 1:6-8 – Waters above the “expanse/firmament”
3. Explanation of Genesis 2:5-6 – Possible absence of rain before the Flood
4. Explanation of Genesis 7:11 – Floodgates of the heavens opening
5. Explanation of Genesis 8:1 – Wind after the Flood
6. Explanation of Genesis 9:13-15 – Clouds and rainbow after the Flood
1. Physically improbable
2. Not observable/testable
3. Lack of Biblical references
 Henry M. Morris (ed.), Scientific Creationism, 2nd ed. (Green Forest: Master Books, 1985), 211. For an alternative explanation of human longevity before the Flood based simply on genetic superiority, see Carl Wieland, “Living for 900 years,” Creation Ex Nihilo 20(4):10-13 (September 1998); archived at http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/805/.
 Two satellites, MAHRSI (Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigation) and HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment), sent back the startling data—“Earth’s upper atmosphere, a region drier than the Sahara Desert, harbors unexpected amounts of water vapor, according to data from a pair of satellites. The discovery could bolster a controversial theory that thousands of house-size comets are hitting the atmosphere each day.” [Richard Monastersky, “Reservoir of water hides high above Earth,” Science News 152(8):117 (23 August 1997)] However, the theory of a constant influx of mini-comets has been strongly criticized as unworkable (see Robert Matthews, “Not a snowball’s chance…” New Scientist 12 July 1997, pp. 26-27).
 “At the peak of the dinosaur era, there were no polar ice caps, and sea levels are estimated to have been from 100 to 250 metres (330 to 820 feet) higher than they are today. The planet’s temperature was also much more uniform, with only 25 degrees Celsius separating average polar temperatures from those at the equator. On average, atmospheric temperatures were also much warmer; the poles, for example, were 50 °C warmer than today.” (Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia, “Dinosaur,” available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur)
 Creationists would line up the “pre-Miocene warmness” with the environment after creation and up to the Flood. Since the Miocene, worldwide temperatures have remained diversified. The warm, moist climate recorded in the pre-Miocene deposits can be challenging for scientists to explain. For example: “According to computer models of climate, North Dakota and other continental interiors also had relatively harsh winters in the geologic past, even during periods like the early Eocene, about 50 million years ago, when global temperatures were the highest in the past 65 million years. But while the computers insist on harsh winters, Eocene fossils from continental interiors tell a different story: winters mild enough for crocodiles to roam through Wyoming and tree ferns to shade Montana.” [Richard A. Kerr, “Fossils tell of mild winters in an ancient hothouse,” Science 261:682 (1993)]
“The 65-million-year-old bones of at least three dinosaur species and two prehistoric reptiles have been recovered from a site in the Alaskan tundra by a team of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Alaska at Fairbanks. Although the magnetic orientation of rock in the area indicates that the site, near Prudhoe Bay, was at least as far north when the dinosaurs lived as it is today (70°N latitude), fossils and other geologic evidence suggest that the site was a coastal swamp with a subtropical to temperate climate. ‘Temperature rarely, if ever, dropped below freezing,’ says William Clemens, the Berkeley paleontologist who led the expedition. ‘Such a mild climate was possible in spite of annual periods of darkness because the earth’s climate was much more “equable”—or uniform—in those days,’ explains Fairbanks paleontologist Carol Allison.” (Jennie Dusheck, “Arctic dinosaurs raise questions,” Science News, 31 August 1985, archived at http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Arctic+dinosaurs+raise+questions-a03911436.)
 There are four primary theories for dinosaur extinction (in order of adherents): 1) Asteroid impact, 2) Climate change, 3) Volcanic activity, and 4) Disease. There are an abundance of others, including combinations of theories (e.g. Susan Couch, “101 Crazy Theories About Dinosaur Extinction,” web article at http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Communication/Couch/101Theories.html).
 B.T. Huber, “Tropical paradise at the Cretaceous poles?” Science 282:2199-2200 (1998); see also Michael J. Oard, “Polar dinosaurs and the Genesis Flood,” Creation Research Society Quarterly 32(1):47-56 (1995).
 P.J. Barrett, R.J. Baillie, and E.H. Colbert, “Triassic Amphibian from Antarctica,” Science 161:460-462 (2 August 1968).
 W.R. Hammer, W.J. Hickerson, and R.W. Slaughter, “A dinosaur assemblage from the Transantarctic Mountains,” Antarctic Journal of the U.S. 29(5):31-32 (1994); see also E.H. Colbert, “Triassic vertebrates in the Transantarctic Mountains,” in M.D. Turner and J.F. Splettstoesser (eds.), Geology of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 36 (Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union, 1982). Dr. Duane Gish asks the pertinent question, “How could animals like dinosaurs, flying reptiles, and turtles survive alongside ferns and conifers in areas with very low temperature and months of darkness?” [Evolution: The Fossils Stills Say No! (El Cajon: Institute for Creation Research, 1995), 127]
 “The discovery of thousands of well-preserved leaves in Antarctica has sparked a debate among geologists over whether the polar region, rather than being blanketed by a massive sheet of ice for millions of years enjoyed a near-temperate climate as recently as three million years ago.” (Chris Raymond, “Discovery of leaves in Antarctica sparks debate over whether region had near-temperate climate,” Chronicle of Higher Education, March 1991, p. A9); see also Larry O’Hanlon, “Antarctic Forests Reveal Ancient Trees, Discovery News, 5 November 2004; web article at http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20041101/leaves.html.
 J.A. Tarduno, et al., “Evidence for extreme climatic warmth from late Cretaceous Arctic vertebrates,” Science 282:2241-2244 (1998); see also Michael J. Oard, “A tropical reptile in the ‘Cretaceous’ arctic,” Creation Ex Nihilo Technical Journal 14(2):9 (August 2000); archived at http://www.creationontheweb.com/content/view/1658/#r5.
 What is so difficult for evolutionary scientists is that the 7.5ft long champsosaur is cold-blooded (an ectotherm). Furthermore, it cannot migrate or hibernate during winter, as is thought possible for some polar dinosaurs and turtles. Uniformitarians therefore consider the champsosaur an ideal climatic indicator. The presence of this animal would require a temperature range of 25ºC to 35ºC, and thus the climate must have been tropical to subtropical. However, the area’s present annual mean temperature is –20ºC, with the lowest daily temperature during the coldest month around –45°C. Since geologists believe the paleolatitude of Axel Heiberg Island was only a little less than that of today, slow continental drift is of no help in understanding the contradiction. Thus, scientists have turned to alternative climate models which have also proved difficult—“The presence of reptiles at Arctic latitudes offers challenges for efforts to model Cretaceous climates. The high polar temperatures implied here exacerbate the problems of simulating warm polar conditions without also raising equatorial temperatures to unreasonably high values.” (Tarduno, et al., 2243)
 See Thomas G. Barnes, Origin and Destiny of the Earth’s Magnetic Field, 2nd ed. (El Cajon: Institute for Creation Research, 1983); and D. Russell Humphreys, “The earth’s magnetic field is still losing energy,” Creation Research Society Quarterly 39(1):3-13 (June 2002); archived at http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/39/39_1/GeoMag.htm.
 Scientists at the University of Rochester used a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), which is normally employed in computer chip design and is extremely sensitive to the tiniest magnetic fields. Previously, “paleointensity” (i.e. study of the Earth’s ancient magnetic field) was measured by heating a piece of igneous rock and cooling it in a chamber that is shielded from any outside magnetic field. In this way, the magnetism in the rock’s particles can be “drained.” Scientists then increase the magnetic field and measure how much magnetism the particles in the rock can hold. However, because of contamination, scientists have not regarded this technique as being particularly accurate until the development and use of the SQUID.
 J.A. Tarduno, R.D. Cottrell, and A.V. Smirnov, “High geomagnetic intensity during the mid-Cretaceous from thellier analyses of single plagioclase crystals,” Science: 291:1779-1783 (2 March 2001). For a summary of the research, see David Whitehouse, “Rocks reveal amazing dino lights,” BBC News Online, 2 March 2001; web article at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1196652.stm.
 Robert A. Berner and Gary P. Landis, “Chemical analysis of gaseous bubble inclusions in amber: The composition of ancient air,” American Journal of Science 287:757-762 (1987); R.A. Berner and G.P. Landis, “Gas bubbles in fossil amber as possible indicators of the major gas composition of ancient air,” Science 239:1406-1409 (18 March 1988); see also Gary Landis “Air bubbles, amber, and dinosaurs,” at http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/na/0amber.htm, in Understanding Our Planet Through Chemistry, web book at http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/gips/na/aii-indx.htm.
 Critics argue that amber is permeable to gases and therefore cannot contain air for millions of years [see H.B. Hopfenberg et al., “Is the air in amber ancient?” Science 241:717-718 (5 August 1988); Richard Monastersky, “Oxygen-extinction theory draws counterfire: claim that dinosaurs died due to drop in atmosphere’s oxygen concentration criticized,” Science News, 6 November 1993].
 É Harlé and A. Harlé, “Le vol de grands reptiles et insects disparus semble indiquer une pression atmosphérique levée,” Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr. 4 Ser. 11:118-121 (1911).
 See J.B. Graham, N.M. Aguilar, R. Dudley, C. Gans, “Implications of the late Palaeozoic oxygen pulse for physiology and evolution,” Nature 375:117-120 (11 May 1995); Robert Dudley, “Atmospheric oxygen, giant paleozoic insects and the evolution of aerial locomotor performance,” Journal of Experimental Biology 201:1043-1050 (1998); archived at http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/reprint/201/8/1043.pdf; and G. Chapelle and L.S. Peck, “Polar gigantism dictated by oxygen availability,” Nature 399:114-115 (13 May 1999).
 J.F. Harrison, et al., “Does atmospheric oxygen level limit maximal insect size?” Geological Society of America Earth System Processes 2 (Calgary, Alberta, 8-11 August 2005); Danika Painter, “Big Ideas About Big Bugs,” ASU Research News, 24 July 2003, web article at http://researchmag.asu.edu/stories/bugs.html; and “Giant Insects Might Reign If Only There Was More Oxygen in the Air,” Science Daily, 12 October 2006; web article at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/10/061012093716.htm.
In contrast to animals, which breath with lungs, insects breathe with a network of tiny tubes called tracheae. Air enters these tubes through holes along the insect’s abdomen, and then diffuses down the blind-ended tracheae. The distance oxygen can travel down the tracheae is dependant upon its concentration in the air. Thus, if atmospheric oxygen is doubled, it will make it twice as far. If an insect has a longer trachea (as do prehistoric insects), then one should expect the insect will need higher oxygen levels to breathe.
Harrison tested this by varying oxygen levels and insect sizes (grasshoppers and dragonflies) and by measuring their subsequent activity (jumping and flying), which is dependent upon oxygen reaching their muscles. He found that larger insects, which have larger trachea, needed more oxygen to continue their activity. Moreover, the smaller insects with shorter trachea were able to continue normal activity at lower oxygen levels. Thus, large prehistoric insects with large trachea must have had higher levels of oxygen in the atmosphere in order for oxygen to reach their muscles. If the oxygen levels were at present rates, the large prehistoric insects would not have been able to move or get off the ground.
This research is part of a broader “oxygen pulse theory” first put forth by Graham et al. (1995), which is summarized as follows, “The findings indicate that there was a ‘pulse’ in the concentration of environmental oxygen during the Paleozoic era. In other words, there was much more oxygen in the atmosphere 300 million years ago than there is today. During this period, the oxygen concentration in the air reached 35 percent, almost double the present level of 21 percent. Oxygen concentration stayed high for about 100 million years, then dropped precipitously to about 15 percent.” (Painter, “Big Ideas About Big Bugs”)
 6 to 12 times the modern concentration of ~.03%, see G.P. Burness, J. Diamond, and T. Flannery, “Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: The evolution of maximal body size,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98:14518-14523 (2001); and J.B. Graham, et al., “The late Paleozoic atmosphere and the ecological and evolutionary physiology of tetrapods,” in Amniote Origins: Completing the Transition to Land, S.S. Sumida and K.L.M. Martin eds. (Academic Press, 1996).
 Richard Hengst (Chair of Biology at Purdue Univ) and others have demonstrated that a large long-necked sauropod such as the Tithonian Apatosaurus (which had small nostrils and no diaphragm) required an oxygen content in the atmosphere of about 35% to function at any level above a very slow walk (slower than the rates deducted from trackways), because they could not ventilate their lungs as easily as birds or mammals. [See R.A. Hengst, R.A., J.K. Rigby, G.P. Landis, and R.E. Sloan, “Biological Consequences of Mesozoic Atmospheres: Respiratory Adaptations and Functional Range of Apatosaurus,” in G. Keller and N. McLeod, eds., Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinctions Biotic and Environmental Changes (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1996), Chapter 13.
This is also seen in the “Pele hypothesis” [first proposed by G.P. Landis, et al., “Pele Hypothesis: Ancient Atmospheres and Geologic-geochemical Controls on Evolution, Survival, and Extinction,” in Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinctions Biotic and Environmental Changes, Chapter 20]: “Dinosaurs required 40 breaths to fully replace the air in their lungs. Mammals and Birds only require 7 breaths to completely replace the air in their lungs. Large Dinosaurs thus required elevated levels of O2 in the air to diversify.” [Robert E. Sloan, “Plate Techtonics and the Radiations/Extinctions of Dinosaurs, the Pele Hypothesis,” DinoFest International: Proceeding of a Symposium sponsored by Arizona State University, March 1998, pp. 533-539.]
 “One implication [of higher O2 levels] is that the atmospheric pressure of the Earth would have been much greater during the Cretaceous era, when the bubbles formed in the resin. A dense atmosphere could also explain how the ungainly pterosaur, with its stubby body and wing span of up to 11 meters, could have stayed airborne.” [Ian Anderson, “Dinosaurs breathed air rich in oxygen,” New Scientist 116:25 (5 November 1987)] This article simply summaries and comments on the research by Berner and Landis.
 At the age of 19 months, “Baby Jessica” fell into an 8-inch-wide well in Midland, Texas on October 14, 1987. Rescuers worked for 58½ hours to free her, but because of her awkward position in the well which led to a severe lack of blood circulation, gross amputations were feared. Paramedics whisked her to Midland Memorial Hospital where she was placed in the hospital’s hyperbaric oxygen unit, which supplied 100% pressurized oxygen for 90 minutes, and her leg and foot were saved. (See “Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen in Texas Well Rescue,” New York Times, 10 November 1987.)
 Octave Levenspiel, Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering at Oregon State University, has theorized that “the giant flying creatures of the dinosaur age could only fly if the atmospheric pressure was much higher than it is now: at least 3.7–5.0 bar.” [O. Levenspiel, T.J. Fitzgerald, and D. Pettit, “Earth’s atmosphere before the age of dinosaurs,” 30(12):50-55 (December 2000); archived at http://journals.iranscience.net:800/Default/pubs.acs.org/isubscribe/journals/cinnov/30/i12/html/12learn.html.]
“Today’s South American condors, with their 12-foot wingspans and 25-pound weight, are the largest creatures that can support and propel themselves through the air according to basic aerodynamic principles… The pterosaur quetzalcoatlus had a wingspan of more than 45 feet—half that of a Boeing 737—and weighed more than 150 pounds. Either it couldn’t fly—but it did—or the atmosphere had to be much denser at the time.” [Octave Levenspiel, “Earth’s early atmosphere,” Chemical Innovation 30(5):47-51 (May 2000); available at http://www.levenspiel.com/octave/dinosaurs.htm.]
Levenspiel addresses the alternative explanation for Quetzalcoatlus flight (that they were gliders during South America’s strong “westerlies”) and concludes, “All these difficulties lead to improbable scenarios. To have survived and thrived for millions of years, these flyers had to be fast, efficient, and well adapted to their environment.” (Ibid.)
 For example, an Apatosaurus (i.e. Brontosaurus) would have to pump blood 25ft or more up its neck to the brain. Alternative explanations include: 1) it had a giant 5 ton heart pumping at extremely high pressures (no evidence of which exists); 2) it had multiple hearts up its neck (as many as 8); 3) its neck was horizontal and never raised above ~10ft (though other sauropods do); or 4) its heart was directly under its chin (which would necessarily involve the presence of many other organs in the same vicinity). [See Levenspiel, “Earth’s early atmosphere”.]
 Dr. Mori was a secular professor in the Department of Science and Engineering at Keio University who was interested in technological innovation, and thus his experiments were never intended to promote YEC—“He intended to enable all the living things on the earth to enjoy much more favor of the sun. Nowadays, there is an acute demand on the technological developments to harmonize the economy with the environment. His invention of HIMAWARI promises many answers to those problems as energy saving, natural alternative energy, global-warming and disposal of wastes and effluents.” (“Sunlight Collecting System ‘HIMAWARI’,” Laforet Engineering Co., 2002; at http://www.himawari-net.co.jp/e_page-index01.html.) He named the sunlight collecting system “Himawari” after the “sunflower” in Japanese. The system “transmits sunlight through optical fiber wherever it is needed, cutting off most of the ultraviolet and infrared rays. ‘HIMAWARI’ supplies value-added sunlight in buildings and makes indoor-sunbathing possible.” (Ibid.)
 Elaine Gilmore, “Sunflower over Tokyo,” Popular Science, May 1988, p. 75.
 Koichibara Hiroshi, “Tomatomation; Japan’s high-tech food factories,” UNESCO Courier, March 1987; archived at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1987_March/ai_4793139; “The system produces some 130 heads of lettuce and other green vegetables per day (some 47,000 per year) on a floor space of no more than 66 square metres. Grown from seed, the lettuce is big enough for harvesting in only five weeks, 3.5 times faster than plants cultivated using conventional methods.” (Ibid.)
 Some dinosaur bones show evidence that they formed rapidly, like those of birds and mammals, rather than slowly like reptiles [see Gregory M. Erickson, et al., “Dinosaurian growth patterns and rapid avian growth rates,” Nature 412:429-433 (26 July 2001); Gregory M. Erickson, et al., “Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of Tyrannosaurid dinosaurs,” Nature 430:772-775 (12 August 2004); and E. Stokstad, “Dinosaurs under the knife,” Science 306(5698):962-965 (5 November 2004)], but the evidence is not conclusive nor universally applicable. For example, the 2002 Dinosaur Display at the British Museum of Natural History stated: “Dinosaurs may have had no maximum size and carried on growing slowly throughout their lives. Some fossil bones have growth rings, like trees, but not clearly enough to show how long the dinosaurs lived.”
 See Walt Brown’s discussion of the 7 primary problems facing the canopy theory: pressure, heat, light, nucleation, greenhouse, support, and ultraviolet rays (“Scientific Arguments Opposing a Canopy,” In the Beginning, 261-263; archived at http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/FAQ33.html.)