FIRST PETITION: SANCTIFY YOUR HOLY NAME (1st THOU PETITION)
- “Hallowed” (Gk. hagiastheto from Gk. hagiazo) means to set apart, treat as holy, or reverence. This is a petition, not an indicative statement i.e. not “Your name is set apart” but “set apart Your name!” It is an imperative in the third person and passive form; meaning this is something God is called on to accomplish.
B. Setting Apart
- This is an appeal for God to act in vindication of His own name. God’s name is united to His very person. This is an appeal for the God of Israel to act in fulfillment of the promises of Israel – vindicating His name that all men might honor Him.
Jewish prayers recognized that God’s name would be “hallowed,” or “sanctified,” “shown holy,” in the time of the end, when his kingdom would come, as the Bible also said (Is 5:16; 29:23; Ezek 36:23; 38:23; 39:7, 27; cf. Zech 14:9)….
a. The name of God, YHWH, is His covenant name as “the God of Israel.”  This means that for God to act on behalf of His name, He is acting in link with fulfillment of His covenant to Israel; He has bound up His name covenantally to a specific ethnic group in the earth as He unfolds redemption and the restoration of all things.
b. Thus, the cry for God to set apart and vindicate His own name is not done in a metaphysical way disconnected from the timeline of redemptive history. It is a once-for-all aspect done by God being faithful to and fulfilling His covenant promises to Israel! This petition echoes the prophets and would be the foremost longing and hope for a faithful Second Temple Jew.
that Israel by its conduct and disloyalty had dishonored God’s name, caused God’s reputation (that which he was known as) to be despised and profaned. The point is that God had committed his name to his chosen people (“the God of Israel”), so that their failure redounded to his discredit. As Ezekiel goes on to show, God would vindicate his name precisely by restoring and renewing his scattered people (Ezek 36:24–36). All this indicates that the prayer for God’s name to be made holy is a prayer that God may so act in his creation, and particularly through his people, that the rest of humankind may in turn come to honor him as God. In this again the petition taught by Jesus grows out of Jewish self-consciousness and hope. 
23But when he sees his children, the work of My hands, in his midst, They will sanctify My name; Indeed, they will sanctify the Holy One of Jacob And will stand in awe of the God of Israel. (Is 29:23)
16Then the word of the Lord came to me saying, 17“Son of man, when the house of Israel was living in their own land, they defiled it by their ways and their deeds; their way before Me was like the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity. 18“Therefore I poured out My wrath on them for the blood which they had shed on the land, because they had defiled it with their idols. 19“Also I scattered them among the nations and they were dispersed throughout the lands. According to their ways and their deeds I judged them. 20“When they came to the nations where they went, they profaned My holy name, because it was said of them, ‘These are the people of the Lord; yet they have come out of His land.’ 21“But I had concern for My holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations where they went. 22“Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘Thus says the Lord God, “It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for My holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you went. 23“I will vindicate the holiness of My great name which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst. Then the nations will know that I am the Lord,” declares the Lord God, “when I prove Myself holy among you in their sight. 24“For I will take you from the nations, gather you from all the lands and bring you into your own land. 25“Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols. 26“Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27“I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances. 28“You will live in the land that I gave to your forefathers; so you will be My people, and I will be your God… 33‘Thus says the Lord God, “On the day that I cleanse you from all your iniquities, I will cause the cities to be inhabited, and the waste places will be rebuilt. 34“The desolate land will be cultivated instead of being a desolation in the sight of everyone who passes by. 35“They will say, ‘This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; and the waste, desolate and ruined cities are fortified and inhabited.’ 36“Then the nations that are left round about you will know that I, the Lord, have rebuilt the ruined places and planted that which was desolate; I, the Lord, have spoken and will do it.” …. 24“My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd; and they will walk in My ordinances and keep My statutes and observe them. 25“They will live on the land that I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers lived; and they will live on it, they, and their sons and their sons’ sons, forever; and David My servant will be their prince forever. 26“I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be an everlasting covenant with them. And I will place them and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in their midst forever. 27“My dwelling place also will be with them; and I will be their God, and they will be My people. 28“And the nations will know that I am the Lord who sanctifies Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forever.” ’ ”…14“Therefore prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog, ‘Thus says the Lord God, “On that day when My people Israel are living securely, will you not know it? 15“You will come from your place out of the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great assembly and a mighty army; 16and you will come up against My people Israel like a cloud to cover the land. It shall come about in the last days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me when I am sanctified through you before their eyes, O Gog.” 17‘Thus says the Lord God, “Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days through My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for many years that I would bring you against them?… 23“I will magnify Myself, sanctify Myself, and make Myself known in the sight of many nations; and they will know that I am the Lord.” ’ (Eze 36:16–38:23)
c. The sanctifying of God’s name is done in the fulfillment of His covenants at the Day of the Lord; the salvation of Israel, end of their exile, and vindication of the faithfulness of the God of Abraham in the sight of all the nations of the earth.  This is in line with the following lines of petition in the prayer as well.
Comparison with the Qaddiš also shows that the two petitions are eschatological. They make entreaty for the revelation of God’s eschatological kingdom. Every accession to power by an earthly ruler is accompanied by homage in words and gestures. So it will be when God enters upon his rule. Then people will do homage to him, hallowing his name: “Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come” (Rev 4:8). Then they will all prostrate themselves at the feet of the King of kings, saying, “We give thanks to you, Lord God Almighty, who are and who were, for you have taken your great power and begun to reign” (Rev 11:17). The two “Thou-petitions”—to which Matthew adds yet a third one of like meaning (“Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven”)—thus make entreaty for the final consummation. Their contents strike the same note as the prayer of the early church, Maranatha (1 Cor 16:22), “Come, Lord Jesus” (Rev 22:20). They seek the hour in which God’s profaned and misused name will be glorified and his reign revealed, in accordance with the promise, “I will sanctify my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, and which you have profaned among them; and the nations shall know that I am Yahweh, says the Lord Yahweh, when through you I display my holiness before their eyes” (Ezek 36:23).
In a Jewish context, this petition refers to God acting in fulfillment of the promises to Israel, and thus to the silencing of the taunts of her enemies. In short, God’s name will only be properly honored when he brings his kingdom and accomplishes his will on earth (cf. the Qaddish). Thus, the first three petitions of the prayer are closely linked, referring essentially to the same salvation-historical reality.
..Jesus trusted God’s reign to consummate the economy of mutual blessing that God had initiated long ago through God’s promises to Abraham and Sarah. This theme is evident, for example, in the Lord’s Prayer…In the first three petitions of the Lord’s Prayer, Jesus instructed his followers to pray for the sanctification of God’s name, for the quick coming of God’s reign, and for God’s will to be done on earth as in heaven. These petitions amplify one another and point to God’s coming reign as a place where the covenantal relationship between God and creation will be fulfilled in an eschatological economy of blessing, praise, and righteousness (Matt. 6:9f; Luke 11:2). 
Kurt Aland et al., The Greek New Testament, Fourth Revised Edition (Interlinear with Morphology) (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993; 2006), Mt 6:9.
 Craig S. Keener, The IVP Bible Background Commentary: New Testament (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993), Mt 6:9–10.
 (Ex. 5:1; 24:10; 32:27; 34:23; Num. 16:9; Jos. 7:13, 19f; 8:30; 9:18f; 10:40, 42; 13:14, 33; 14:14; 22:16, 24; 24:2, 23; Jdg. 4:6; 5:3, 5; 6:8; 11:21, 23; 21:3; Ruth 2:12; 1 Sam. 1:17; 2:30; 5:7f, 10f; 6:3, 5; 10:18; 14:41; 20:12; 23:10f; 25:32, 34; 2 Sam. 7:27; 12:7; 23:3; 1 Ki. 1:30, 48; 8:15, 17, 20, 23, 25f; 11:9, 31; 14:7, 13; 15:30; 16:13, 26, 33; 17:1, 14; 22:53; 2 Ki. 9:6; 10:31; 14:25; 18:5; 19:15, 20; 21:12; 22:15, 18; 1 Chr. 4:10; 5:26; 15:12, 14; 16:4, 36; 17:24; 22:6; 23:25; 24:19; 28:4; 29:10; 2 Chr. 2:12; 6:4, 7, 10, 14, 16f; 11:16; 13:5; 15:4, 13; 20:19; 29:7, 10; 30:1, 5; 32:17; 33:16, 18; 34:23, 26; 36:13; Ezr. 1:3; 3:2; 4:1, 3; 5:1; 6:14, 21f; 7:6, 15; 8:35; 9:4, 15; Ps. 41:13; 59:5; 68:8, 35; 69:6; 72:18; 106:48; Is. 17:6; 21:10, 17; 24:15; 29:23; 37:16, 21; 41:17; 45:3, 15; 48:1f; 52:12; Jer. 7:3, 21; 9:15; 11:3; 13:12; 16:9; 19:3, 15; 21:4; 23:2; 24:5; 25:15, 27; 27:4, 21; 28:2, 14; 29:4, 8, 21, 25; 30:2; 31:23; 32:14f, 36; 33:4; 34:2, 13; 35:13, 17ff; 37:7; 38:17; 39:16; 42:9, 15, 18; 43:10; 44:2, 7, 11, 25; 45:2; 46:25; 48:1; 50:18; 51:33; Eze. 8:4; 9:3; 10:19f; 11:22; 43:2; 44:2; Zeph. 2:9; Mal. 2:16; Mt. 15:31; Lk. 1:68).
 J. D. G. Dunn, “Prayer,” ed. Joel B. Green and Scot McKnight, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1992), 621.
 See also Tobit 13: 1Then Tobit said: “Blessed be God who lives forever, because his kingdom lasts throughout all ages. 2For he afflicts, and he shows mercy; he leads down to Hades in the lowest regions of the earth, and he brings up from the great abyss, and there is nothing that can escape his hand. 3Acknowledge him before the nations [Gentiles], O children of Israel; for he has scattered you among them. 4He has shown you his greatness even there. Exalt him in the presence of every living being, because he is our Lord and he is our God; he is our Father and he is God forever. 5He will afflict you for your iniquities, but he will again show mercy on all of you. He will gather you from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 6If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul, to do what is true before him, then he will turn to you and will no longer hide his face from you. So now see what he has done for you; acknowledge him at the top of your voice. Bless the Lord of righteousness, and exalt the King of the ages. In the land of my exile I acknowledge him, and show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners: ‘Turn back, you sinners, and do what is right before him; perhaps he may look with favor upon you and show you mercy.’ (Tob 13:1–6)
 K. C. Hanson, “Editor’s Foreword,” in Jesus and the Message of the New Testament, ed. K. C. Hanson, Fortress Classics in Biblical Studies (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2002), 53.
 Donald A. Hagner, Matthew 1–13, vol. 33A, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1998), 148.
 R. Kendall Soulen. The God of Israel and Christian Theology (Minneapolis: Fortress Press 1996) 160.