NT CONTROVERSY: WHAT TO DO WITH THE ‘GER’
A. From Alien To Proselyte – The Transition In The Diaspora
17 “For the Lord your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords, the great, the mighty, and the awesome God who does not show partiality nor take a bribe. 18 “He executes justice for the orphan and the widow, and shows His love for the alien (HT ‘ger’, LXX ‘proselyte’) by giving him food and clothing. 19 “So show your love for the alien, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt. (Dt 10:17–19 NASB95)
1731 גֵּר (gēr): n.masc.; ≡ Str 1616; TWOT 330a—LN 11.55–11.89 alien, stranger, foreigner, i.e., one who is of a different geographical or cultural group, often with less rights than the reference group (Ge 15:13), see also LN 85.67–85.85; note: for NIV text in Isa 5:17, see 1531
4670 προσήλυτος (prosēlytos), ου (ou), ὁ (ho): n.masc.; ≡ DBLHebr 1731; Str 4339; TDNT 6.727—LN 11.54 proselyte, a convert to Judaism (niV), (Mt 23:15; Ac 2:11; 6:5; 13:43
B. The ger And The Land Of Israel
33 “ ‘When a foreigner (HT ‘ger’) resides among you in your land, do not mistreat them. 34 The foreigner residing among you must be treated as your native-born. Love them as yourself, for you were foreigners in Egypt. I am the Lord your God. (Le 19:33–34 NIV)
22 “ ‘When you reap the harvest of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest. Leave them for the poor and for the foreigner residing among you. I am the Lord your God.’ ” (Le 23:22 NIV)
8 “Say to them: ‘Any Israelite or any foreigner residing among them who offers a burnt offering or sacrifice 9 and does not bring it to the entrance to the tent of meeting to sacrifice it to the Lord must be cut off from the people of Israel. 10 “ ‘I will set my face against any Israelite or any foreigner residing among them who eats blood, and I will cut them off from the people. (Le 17:8–10 NIV)
- 13 If a young man or an old man from the house of the family of Israel, or from the strangers who settle down to dwell among you, catches as prey an animal or a bird that one may eat, he shall pour out its blood when slaughtering it, and, if its slaughtering was not defective (alternate translation has, ‘by strangling’), he shall cover it with dust. (Le 17:13 Targum Pseudo-Jonathan: Leviticus) 
26 But you must keep my decrees and my laws. The native-born and the foreigners residing among you must not do any of these detestable things (cf. Lev. 18:6-23, sexual immorality defined), (Le 18:26 NIV)
21 Do not eat anything you find already dead. You may give it to the foreigner residing in any of your towns, and they may eat it, or you may sell it to any other foreigner. But you are a people holy to the Lord your God… (Dt 14:21 NIV)
C. The ger And The Age To Come
11 Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called “uncircumcised” by those who call themselves “the circumcision” (which is done in the body by human hands)—12 remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near by the blood of Christ… 19 Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and strangers, but fellow citizens with God’s people and also members of his household, (Eph 2:11–19 NIV)
- 21 “You are to distribute this land among yourselves according to the tribes of Israel. 22 You are to allot it as an inheritance for yourselves and for the foreigners residing among you and who have children. You are to consider them as native-born Israelites; along with you they are to be allotted an inheritance among the tribes of Israel. (Eze 47:21–22 NIV)
6 This mystery is that through the gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus. 7 I became a servant of this gospel by the gift of God’s grace given me through the working of his power. (Eph 3:6–7 NIV) 
- 3 Let not the foreigner who has joined himself to the Lord say, “The Lord will surely separate me from His people…6 “Also the foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, To minister to Him, and to love the name of the Lord, To be His servants, every one who keeps from profaning the sabbath And holds fast My covenant; 7 Even those I will bring to My holy mountain And make them joyful in My house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be acceptable on My altar; For My house will be called a house of prayer for all the peoples.” 8 The Lord God, who gathers the dispersed of Israel, declares, “Yet others I will gather to them, to those already gathered.” (Is 56:6–8 NASB95)
D. The Circumcision Group – School Of Hillel Vs. School Of Shammai
1 Certain people came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the believers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.” 2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them. So Paul and Barnabas were appointed, along with some other believers, to go up to Jerusalem to see the apostles and elders about this question. (Ac 15:1–2 NIV)
- 11 When Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned. 12 For before certain men came from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he began to draw back and separate himself from the Gentiles because he was afraid of those who belonged to the circumcision group. (Ga 2:11–12 NIV)
- 28 Peter said to them, “You know it’s forbidden  for a Jewish man to associate with or visit a foreigner. But God has shown me that I must not call any person common or unclean. (Ac 10:28 HCSB)
E. Acts 15 – The Traditionalist Stand
1 Certain people came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the believers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.” 2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them. So Paul and Barnabas were appointed, along with some other believers, to go up to Jerusalem to see the apostles and elders about this question… 4 When they came to Jerusalem, they were welcomed by the church and the apostles and elders, to whom they reported everything God had done through them. 5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, “The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to keep the law of Moses.” 6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question… 13 When they finished, James spoke up. “Brothers,” he said, “listen to me. 14 Simon has described to us how God first intervened to choose a people for his name from the Gentiles. 15 The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written: 16 “ ‘After this I will return and rebuild David’s fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it, 17 that the rest of mankind may seek the Lord, even all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things’— 18 things known from long ago. 19 “It is my judgment, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God. 20 Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood. (cf. Lev. 17-18) 21 For the law of Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath.” (Ac 15:1–21 NIV)
F. Justification By Faith
15 “We who are Jews by birth and not sinful Gentiles 16 know that a person is not justified by the works of the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one will be justified. (Gal 2:15-16 NIV)
21 But now apart from the Law the righteousness of God has been manifested, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, 22 even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all those who believe; for there is no distinction; 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus… 27 Where then is boasting? It is excluded. By what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith. 28 For we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the Law. (Ro 3:21–28 NASB95)
19 Without weakening in his faith, he faced the fact that his body was as good as dead–since he was about a hundred years old–and that Sarah’s womb was also dead. 20 Yet he did not waver through unbelief regarding the promise of God, but was strengthened in his faith and gave glory to God, 21 being fully persuaded that God had power to do what he had promised. 22 This is why “it was credited to him as righteousness.” 23 The words “it was credited to him” were written not for him alone, 24 but also for us, to whom God will credit righteousness–for us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead. (Rom 4:19-24 NIV)
 Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
 Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Greek (New Testament). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
 ‘But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life,26 which they ought to let depart free and unrestrained, burying the blood, as it were, in the body.’ – Yonge, C. D. with Philo of Alexandria. (1995). The works of Philo: complete and unabridged (p. 628). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.
 Throughout the OT the ‘inheritance’ promised to the Israelite was a portion of the land promised to Abraham. (cf. Num. 26:62, 32:32, 33:54, 34:2; Deut 3:28, 12:9)
 There is no command in the Torah to abstain from eating with Gentiles. This is a command given by the more influential of the two schools of Pharisaic thought in the 1st century. This school taught that Gentiles will not be raised from the dead unless converting.
 ἀθέμιτος – This term refers prim. not to what is forbidden by ordinance but to violation of tradition or common recognition of what is seemly or proper. Arndt, W., Danker, F. W., & Bauer, W. (2000). A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (3rd ed., p. 24). Chicago: University of Chicago Press