Daniel Training Network Biblical Classes https://danieltrainingnetwork.org A podcast of classes that work extensively through the Bible, worldview, Church history and much more. http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org Wed, 14 Oct 2020 19:11:25 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5.1 A podcast of videos which include several classes giving instruction on various subjects related to the Bible and end-times. http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org Daniel Training Network Biblical Classes Daniel Training Network Biblical Classes podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org (Daniel Training Network Biblical Classes) © 2010-2015 Daniel Training Network Preparing the Saints for the Day of the Lord Daniel Training Network Biblical Classes http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/powerpress/DTN-Class-VIDEO-2048 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org TV-PG 42918388 The Justice Of God In Redemptive History Part 1 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Sat, 01 Jun 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6082 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 Justice movements abound today, among believer and unbeliever alike. What makes a justice movement true or false? The justice of God throughout redemptive history provides a standard by which to anchor our hearts. Temporal judgments in this age point to the eternal judgment in Gehenna, and thus even temporal judgments are fundamentally merciful in nature. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – Session 7a

 

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Justice movements abound today, among believer and unbeliever alike. What makes a justice movement true or false? The justice of God throughout redemptive history provides a standard by which to anchor our hearts. Temporal judgments in this age point to the eternal judgment in Gehenna, and thus even temporal judgments are fundamentally merciful in nature.

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NOTES

The content of this classes notes are below with partial formatting. If you would like to see the notes with complete formatting,

Download “The Justice of God in Redemptive History” Notes and

Download “SN Gehenna and Eternal Bodily Torment” Notes.

The Justice Of God In Redemptive History

JUSTICE AND CRUCIFORM-APOCALYPTICISM

JUSTICE AND CRUCIFORM-APOCALYPTICISM

A.             Gehenna: The Fulfillment of Divine Justice

The LORD will cause men to hear his majestic voice and will make them see his arm coming down with raging anger and consuming fire, with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail… 33 Topheth [cf. 2 Ki. 23:10; Jer. 7:31f; 19:6-14] has long been prepared; it has been made ready for the king. Its fire pit has been made deep and wide, with an abundance of fire and wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze. (NIV Isaiah 30:30-33) [1]

If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell [Gk. gehenna].  30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell [Gk. gehenna]. (ESV Matthew 5:29-30)

If your hand or your foot causes you to sin cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life maimed or crippled than to have two hands or two feet and be thrown into eternal fire9 And if your eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into the fire of hell [Gk. gehenna]. (NIV Matthew 18:8-9)

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell [Gk. gehenna] as yourselves… 33 You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell [Gk. gehenna]? (ESV Matthew 23:15, 33)

If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life maimed than with two hands to go into hell [Gk. gehenna], where the fire never goes out47 And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into hell [Gk. gehenna], 48 where “their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.” [Is. 66:24] (NIV Mark 9:43-48)

Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.  2 Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known.  3 Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops.  4 “I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that have nothing more that they can do.  5 But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell [Gk. gehenna]. Yes, I tell you, fear him! (ESV Luke 12:1-5)

If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand,  10 he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.  11 And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name. (ESV Revelation 14:9-11)

And the devil, who deceived them, was thrown into the lake of burning sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet had been thrown. They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever13 The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each person was judged according to what he had done.  14 Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. The lake of fire is the second death.  15 If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. (NIV Revelation 20:10-15)

B.             The Day of Justice

I tell you, on the day of judgment people will give account for every careless word they speak,  37 for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned. (ESV Matthew 12:36-37)

And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man.  28 Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice  29 and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment. (ESV John 5:25-29)

1-Severity-of-Divine-Judgment-Scale

But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed. (ESV Romans 2:5)

But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly. (ESV 2 Peter 3:7)

C.              The Holding for Eschatological Justice

For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell (Gk. tartarus) and committed them to chains of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment6 if by turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly… 9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment. (ESV 2 Peter 2:4-9)[2]

2-Hades-Gehenna

And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day-  7 just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire. (ESV Jude 1:6-7)

Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,  2 for true and just are his judgments. He has condemned the great prostitute who corrupted the earth by her adulteries… Hallelujah! The smoke from her goes up for ever and ever… Hallelujah! For our Lord God Almighty reigns.  7 Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! (NIV Revelation 19:1-7)

D.             Temporal and Eternal Justice

But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.  21 I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality.  22 Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works,  23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you as your works deserve. (ESV Revelation 2:20-23)

3-Blessing-Judgment

For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes27 Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord28 Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup.  29 For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself30 That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died.  31 But if we judged ourselves truly, we would not be judged.  32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned along with the world. (ESV 1 Corinthians 11:26-32)

E.              This Age and the Mercy of God

About this time Jesus was informed that Pilate had murdered some people from Galilee as they were sacrificing at the Temple in Jerusalem.  2 “Do you think those Galileans were worse sinners than other people from Galilee?” he asked. “Is that why they suffered?  3 Not at all! And you will also perish unless you turn from your evil ways and turn to God4 And what about the eighteen men who died when the Tower of Siloam fell on them? Were they the worst sinners in Jerusalem?  5 No, and I tell you again that unless you repent, you will also perish.” (NLT Luke 13:1-5)

In the past God overlooked such ignorance, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent31 For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead. (NIV Acts 17:30-31)

But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly… 9 The Lord is not slow to fulfill his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance. (ESV 2 Peter 3:7-9)



[1] “Southwest of the city was the Valley of Hinnom, an area that had a long history of desecration. The steep gorge was once used to burn children in sacrifice to the Ammonite god Molech (2 Kings 23:10; Jer. 7:31; 32:35). Jeremiah denounced such practices by saying that Hinnom Valley would become the valley of God’s judgment, a place of slaughter (Jer. 7:32; 19:5-7). As the years passed, a sense of foreboding hung over the valley. People began to burn their garbage and offal there, using sulfur, the flammable substance we now use in matches and gunpowder. Eventually, the Hebrew name ge-hinnom (canyon of Hinnom) evolved into geenna (gehenna), the familiar Greek word for hell (Matt. 5:22, 29; 10:28; 18:9; 23:33; Mark 9:43, 45; Luke 12:5). Thus when the Jews talked about punishment in the next life, what better image could they use than the smoldering valley they called gehenna? … Some Jews, of course, took the fiery images literally, supposing that Hinnom Valley itself would become the place of hellfire and judgment (1 Enoch 27:1-2; 54:1-6; 56:3-4; 90:26-28; 4 Ezra 7:36).” (William V. Crockett, “The Metaphorical View,” in Four Views on Hell [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996], 58)

[2] “Fundamental for an understanding of the γέεννα passages in the NT, which occur only in the Synoptists and John, is the sharp distinction made by the NT between → ᾅδης and γέεννα. This distinction is a. that Hades receives the ungodly only for the intervening period between death and resurrection, whereas Gehenna is their place of punishment in the last judgment; the judgment of the former is thus provisional but the torment of the latter eternal (Mk. 9:43 and par.; 9:48). It is then b. that the souls of the ungodly are outside the body in Hades, whereas in Gehenna both body and soul, reunited at the resurrection, are destroyed by eternal fire (Mk. 9:43 and par., 45, 47 and par., 48; Mt. 10:28 and par.).” (J. Jeremias, “γέεννα,” TDNT, 1:658)

GOD'S DESIRE FOR JUSTICE

GOD’S DESIRE FOR JUSTICE

A.             The Prophetic Testimony

The LORD examines the righteous, but the wicked and those who love violence his soul hates6 On the wicked he will rain fiery coals and burning sulfur; a scorching wind will be their lot.  7 For the LORD is righteous, he loves justice; upright men will see his face. (NIV Psalm 11:5-7)

Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, let not the mighty man boast in his might, let not the rich man boast in his riches,  24 but let him who boasts boast in this, that he understands and knows me, that I am the LORD who practices steadfast love, justice, and righteousness in the earth. For in these things I delight, declares the LORD. (ESV Jeremiah 9:23-24)

But as for me, I am filled with power, with the Spirit of the LORD, and with justice and might, to declare to Jacob his transgression and to Israel his sin.  9 Hear this, you heads of the house of Jacob and rulers of the house of Israel, who detest justice and make crooked all that is straight,  10 who build Zion with blood and Jerusalem with iniquity.  11 Its heads give judgment for a bribe; its priests teach for a price; its prophets practice divination for money; yet they lean on the LORD and say, “Is not the LORD in the midst of us? No disaster shall come upon us.” (ESV Micah 3:8-11)

“Thus says the LORD of hosts, Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another,  10 do not oppress the widow, the fatherless, the sojourner, or the poor, and let none of you devise evil against another in your heart.”  11 But they refused to pay attention and turned a stubborn shoulder and stopped their ears that they might not hear.  12 They made their hearts diamond-hard lest they should hear the law and the words that the LORD of hosts had sent by his Spirit through the former prophets. Therefore great anger came from the LORD of hosts. (ESV Zechariah 7:9-12)

B.             The Call to Imitate the Justice of God

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation for all people,  12 training us to renounce ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age,  13 waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,  14 who gave himself for us to redeem us from all lawlessness and to purify for himself a people for his own possession who are zealous for good works. (ESV Titus 2:11-14)

Therefore, preparing your minds for action, and being sober-minded, set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ.  14 As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance,  15 but as he who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct16 since it is written, “You shall be holy, for I am holy.”  17 And if you call on him as Father who judges impartially according to each one’s deeds, conduct yourselves with fear throughout the time of your exile. (ESV 1 Peter 1:13-17)

When you are assembled in the name of the Lord Jesus and my spirit is present, with the power of our Lord Jesus,  5 you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord… 11 I am writing to you not to associate with anyone who bears the name of brother if he is guilty of sexual immorality or greed, or is an idolater, reviler, drunkard, or swindler—not even to eat with such a one.  12 For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Is it not those inside the church whom you are to judge?  13 God judges those outside. “Purge the evil person from among you.”  6:1 When one of you has a grievance against another, does he dare go to law before the unrighteous instead of the saints?  2 Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is to be judged by you, are you incompetent to try trivial cases?  3 Do you not know that we are to judge angels? How much more, then, matters pertaining to this life!  4 So if you have such cases, why do you lay them before those who have no standing in the church?  5 I say this to your shame. Can it be that there is no one among you wise enough to settle a dispute between the brothers,  6 but brother goes to law against brother, and that before unbelievers7 To have lawsuits at all with one another is already a defeat for you. Why not rather suffer wrong? Why not rather be defrauded?  8 But you yourselves wrong and defraud—even your own brothers! (ESV 1 Corinthians 5:4-6:8)

C.              The Call to Imitate the Mercy of God

Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy11 Beloved, I urge you as sojourners and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul.  12 Keep your conduct among the Gentiles honorable, so that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation.  13 Be subject for the Lord’s sake to every human institution… 18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all respect, not only to the good and gentle but also to the unjust19 For this is a gracious thing, when, mindful of God, one endures sorrows while suffering unjustly20 For what credit is it if, when you sin and are beaten for it, you endure? But if when you do good and suffer for it you endure, this is a gracious thing in the sight of God.  21 For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps22 He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth.  23 When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly. (ESV 1 Peter 2:10-23)

Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery trial when it comes upon you to test you, as though something strange were happening to you.  13 But rejoice insofar as you share Christ’s sufferings, that you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed.  14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you.  15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer or a thief or an evildoer or as a meddler.  16 Yet if anyone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in that name.  17 For it is time for judgment to begin at the household of God; and if it begins with us, what will be the outcome for those who do not obey the gospel of God?  18 And “If the righteous is scarcely saved, what will become of the ungodly and the sinner?”  19 Therefore let those who suffer according to God’s will entrust their souls to a faithful Creator while doing good. (ESV 1 Peter 4:12-19) 

 

Supplemental Notes: Gehenna and Eternal Bodily Torment

BIBLICAL FOUNDATION

BIBLICAL FOUNDATION

(cf. Ps. 21:9; Is. 30:33; 31:9; 34:9f; 66:24; Jer. 7:32; 19:6; Mal. 4:1; Dan. 12:2; Mt. 5:22, 29f; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; 25:46; Mk. 9:43, 45, 47; Lk. 12:5; Jn. 5:29; Acts 24:15; 2 Thess. 1:9; Heb. 6:2; 2 Pe. 2:17; Jude 1:7, 13; Rev. 19:20; 20:10, 14f; 21:8)

The LORD will cause men to hear his majestic voice and will make them see his arm coming down with raging anger and consuming fire, with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail… 33 Topheth [“which is the Valley of the Son of Hinnom”, 2 Ki. 23:10; cf. Jer. 7:31; 19:6; 32:35] has long been prepared; it has been made ready for the king. Its fire pit has been made deep and wide, with an abundance of fire and wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze. (NIV Isaiah 30:30-33)

For just as the new heavens and the new earth which I make will endure before me, declares the LORD, so your offspring and your name will endure.  23 And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from sabbath to sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before me, says the LORD.  24 Then they will go forth and look on the corpses of the men who have transgressed against me. For their worm will not die and their fire will not be quenched; and they will be an abhorrence to all mankind. (NASB Isaiah 66:22-24)

So beware, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when people will no longer call it Topheth or the Valley of Ben Hinnom, but the Valley of Slaughter, for they will bury the dead in Topheth until there is no more room.  33 Then the carcasses of this people will become food for the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and there will be no one to frighten them away.  34 I will bring an end to the sounds of joy and gladness and to the voices of bride and bridegroom in the towns of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem, for the land will become desolate. (NIV Jeremiah 7:32-34)

And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life crippled than with two hands to go to hell [Gk. gehenna], to the unquenchable fire47 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell [Gk. gehenna], 48 ‘where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.’ (ESV Mark 9:43)

Just as the weeds are gathered and burned with fire, so will it be at the close of the age.  41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all law-breakers,  42 and throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (ESV Matthew 13:40-42)

Then he will say to those on his left, “Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.” … 46 And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. (ESV Matthew 25:41-46)

If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand,  10 he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur [cf. 19:20; 21:8] in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.  11 And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever [cf. 20:10], and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name. (ESV Revelation 14:9-11)

INTERTESTAMENTAL LITERATURE

INTERTESTAMENTAL LITERATURE

(Judith 16:17; Sirach 7:17; 4 Ezra 2:29; 7:26-42; 4 Maccabees 9:9; 10:10-15; 12:12; 13:15; 1 Enoch 10.13; 18.9-16; 26-27; 48.8-10; 54.1-6; 56.1-4; 90.24-27; 100.7-9; 103.7-8; 108.4-7; 2 Enoch 10.1-3; 40.12-13; 63.4; 2 Baruch 30.4-5; 44.12-15; 51.6; 59.2; 64.7-10; 83.8; 85.12-13; Assumption of Moses 10:10; Jubilees 36.9-11; Sibylline Oracles 1.100-03, 349-50; 2.283-312; 4.179-91)[1]

Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; he will send fire and worms into their flesh; they shall weep in pain forever. (NRSV Judith 16:17)

Humble yourself to the utmost, for the punishment of the ungodly is fire and worms. (NRSV Sirach 7:17)

For indeed the time will come, when the signs that I have foretold to you will come to pass… 32 The earth shall give up those who are asleep in it, and the dust those who rest there in silence; and the chambers shall give up the souls that have been committed to them.  33 The Most High shall be revealed on the seat of judgment, and compassion shall pass away, and patience shall be withdrawn.  34 Only judgment shall remain, truth shall stand, and faithfulness shall grow strong.  35 Recompense shall follow, and the reward shall be manifested; righteous deeds shall awake, and unrighteous deeds shall not sleep.  36 The pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight.  37 Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, ‘Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised.  38 Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments.’ Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment–  39 a day that has no sun or moon or stars,  40 or cloud or thunder or lightning, or wind or water or air, or darkness or evening or morning,  41 or summer or spring or heat or winter or frost or cold, or hail or rain or dew,  42 or noon or night, or dawn or shining or brightness or light, but only the splendor of the glory of the Most High, by which all shall see what has been destined. (NRSV 4 Ezra 7:26-42)

For we, through this severe suffering and endurance, shall have the prize of virtue and shall be with God, on whose account we suffer;  9 but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. (NRSV 4 Maccabees 9:8-9)

When he was about to die, he said,  10 “We, most abominable tyrant, are suffering because of our godly training and virtue,  11 but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments.”  12 When he too had died in a manner worthy of his brothers, they dragged in the fourth, saying,  13 “As for you, do not give way to the same insanity as your brothers, but obey the king and save yourself.”  14 But he said to them, “You do not have a fire hot enough to make me play the coward.  15 No—by the blessed death of my brothers, by the eternal destruction of the tyrant, and by the everlasting life of the pious, I will not renounce our noble family ties.” (NRSV 4 Maccabees 10:9-15)

You profane tyrant, most impious of all the wicked, since you have received good things and also your kingdom from God, were you not ashamed to murder his servants and torture on the wheel those who practice religion?  12 Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. (NRSV 4 Maccabees 12:11-12)

Let us not fear him who thinks he is killing us,  15 for great is the struggle of the soul and the danger of eternal torment lying before those who transgress the commandment of God. (NRSV 4 Maccabees 13:14-15)

In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. 14 And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations. (1 Enoch 10.13-14, POT)

At that moment, I said, “For what purpose does this blessed land, entirely filled with trees, have in its midst this accursed valley?” 2 Then, Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, answered me and said to me, “This accursed valley is for those accursed forever; here will gather together all those accursed ones, those who speak with their mouth unbecoming words against the Lord and utter hard words concerning his glory. Here shall they be gathered together, and here shall be their judgment, in the last days. There will be upon them the spectacle of the righteous judgment, in the presence of the righteous forever. The merciful will bless the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, all the day. (1 Enoch 27:1-3, OTP)

In these days downcast in countenance shall the kings of the earth have become, and the strong who possess the land because of the works of their hands, for on the day of their anguish and affliction they shall not be able to save themselves. 9 And I will give them over into the hands of Mine elect: as straw in the fire so shall they burn before the face of the holy: as lead in the water shall they sink before the face of the righteous, and no trace of them shall any more be found. 10 And on the day of their affliction there shall be rest on the earth, and before them they shall fall and not rise again: and there shall be no one to take them with his hands and raise them: for they have denied the Lord of Spirits and His Anointed. The name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed. (1 Enoch 48:8-10, POT)

Then I looked and turned to another face of the earth and saw there a valley, deep and burning with fire. And they were bringing kings and potentates and were throwing them into this deep valley. And my eyes saw there their chains while they were making them into iron fetters of immense weight… “Then Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel themselves shall seize them on that great day of judgment and cast them into the furnace of fire that is burning that day, so that the Lord of the Spirits may take vengeance on them on account of their oppressive deeds which they performed as messengers of Satan, leading astray those who dwell upon the earth.” (1 Enoch 54:1-6, OTP)

Then I kept seeing till a throne was erected in a pleasant land; and he sat upon if for the Lord of the sheep; and he took all the sealed books and opened those very books in the presence of the Lord of the sheep… 24 Then his judgment took place. First among the stars, they received their judgment and were found guilty, and they went to the place of condemnation; and they were thrown into an abyss, full of fire and flame and full of the pillar of fire. 25 Then those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty; and they were cast into that fiery abyss. 26 In the meantime I saw how another abyss like it, full of fire, was opened wide in the middle of the ground; and they brought those blinded sheep, all of which were judged, found guilty, and cast into this fiery abyss, and they were burned—the abyss is to the right of that house; 27 thus I saw those sheep while they were burning—their bones also were burning. (1 Enoch 90:20-27, OTP)

And the Most High will arise on that day of judgment in order to execute a great judgment upon all the sinners… Woe unto you, sinners, when you oppress the righteous ones, in the day of hard anguish, and burn them with fire! You shall be recompensed according to your deeds. Woe unto you, you hard of heart, who are watchful to devise evil! Fear shall seize you, and none shall come to your aid. Woe unto you, sinners, because of the words of your hands! On account of the deeds of your wicked ones, in blazing flames worse than fire, it shall burn. (1 Enoch 100.4-9, OTP)

Woe unto you sinners who are dead! … You yourselves know that they will bring your souls down to Sheol; and they shall experience evil and great tribulation—in darkness, nets, and burning flame. Your souls shall enter into the great judgment; it shall be a great judgment in all the generations of the world. Woe unto you, for there is no peace for you! (1 Enoch 103.5-8, OTP)

As for you, wait patiently until sin passes away, for the names of the sinners shall be blotted out from the Book of Life and the books of the Holy One; their seeds shall be destroyed forever and their spirits shall perish and die; they shall cry and lament in a place that is an invisible wilderness and burn in the fire—for there exists ground there as upon the earth. I also saw there something like an invisible cloud; and though I could see that it was completely dark yet I could not see the flame of its fire because it was burning brightly; and there were some things like bright mountains which formed a ring around it and which were tossing it to and fro. Then I asked one of the holy angels who was with me, saying to him, “What is this bright thing? For it is not a heaven but merely the flame of a fire which is burning—and a voice of weeping, crying, and lamenting as well as strong pain.” And he said unto me, “This place which you see, into it shall be taken the spirits of sinners, blasphemers, those who do evil, and those who alter all the things which the Lord has done through the mouth of the prophets, all of which have to be fulfilled.” (1 Enoch 108.3-6, OTP)

And those men carried me to the northern region; and they showed me there a very frightful place; 2 and all kinds of torture and torment are in that place, cruel darkness and lightless gloom. And there is no light there, and a black fire blazes up perpetually, with a river of fire that comes out over the whole place, fire here, freezing ice there, and it dries up and it freezes; and very cruel places of detention and dark and merciless angels, carrying instruments of atrocities torturing without pity. (2 Enoch 10.1-3, OTP 1:118)

I wrote down the height from the earth to the seventh heaven, and the depth to the lowermost hell, and the place of condemnation, and the supremely large hell, open and weeping. 13 And I saw how the prisoners were in pain, looking forward to endless punishment; and I recorded all those who have been condemned by the judge, and all their sentences and all their corresponding deeds… 41.2 And I said to their faces, ‘It would have been better if I had not seen you, nor heard about your activities, nor that any member of my tribe had been brought to you. To what a small extent they have sinned in this life, but in the eternal life they will suffer forever.’ (2 Enoch 40.12-41.2, OTP 1:166-68)

Every proud and magniloquent man is hateful to the Lord, and every false speech, clothed in untruth; it will be cut with the blade of the sword of death, and thrown into the fire, and shall burn for all time. (2 Enoch 63.4, POT 2:466)

And the hour comes which abides for ever. And the new world comes which does not turn to corruption those who depart to its blessedness, and has no mercy on those who depart to torment, and leads not to perdition those who live in it… 15 For to them shall be given the world to come, but the dwelling of the rest who are many shall be in the fire. (2 Baruch 44:12-15, POT)

For at that time the lamp of the eternal law shone on all those who sat in darkness, which announced to them that believe, the promise of their reward, and to them that deny, the torment of fire which is reserved for them. (2 Baruch 59:2, POT)

On this account Manasseh was at that time named “the impious”, and finally his abode was in the fire9 For he had not lived perfectly, for he was not worthy—but that thenceforward he might know by whom finally he should be tormented. 10 For he who is able to benefit is also able to torment. (2 Baruch 64:7-10, POT)

There is the proclamation of judgment to corruption, regarding the way to the fire and the path that leads to the glowing coals [“Gehenna”, POT]. 14 Therefore, there is one Law by One, one world and an end for all those who exist. 15 Then he will make alive those whom he has found, and he will purge them from sins, and at the same time he will destroy those who are polluted with sins. (2 Baruch 85.13-15, OTP)

And God will exalt thee, and He will cause thee to approach to the heaven of the stars, in the place of their habitation. 10 And thou shalt look from on high and shalt see thy enemies in Gehenna, and thou shalt recognize them and rejoice, and thou shalt give thanks and confess thy Creator. (Assumption of Moses 10:9-10, POT 2:422)

And on the day of turmoil and execration and indignation and wrath, then with devouring burning fire just as he burned Sodom so too he will burn up his land and his city and everything which will be his. And he will be wiped out from the book of the discipline of mankind, and he will not be written on high in The Book of Life for he is written in the one which will be destroyed and pass on to eternal execration so that their judgment will always be renewed with eternal reproach and execration and wrath and torment and indignation and plagues and sickness. (Jubilees 36.10, OTP 2:124)

They [the second generation of men] were mighty, of great form, but nevertheless they went under the dread house of Tartarus guarded by unbreakable bonds, to make retribution, to Gehenna of terrible, raging, undying fire. (Sibylline Oracles 1.100-03, OTP 1:337)

These and the sorcerers and sorceresses in addition to them will the anger of the heavenly imperishable God 285 also bring near to the pillar, around which an undying fiery river flows in a circle. All these at once the angels of the immortal, everlasting God will punish terribly from above with whips of flame, having bound them around with fiery chains 290 and unbreakable bonds. Then, in the dead of night, they will be thrown under many terrible infernal beasts in Gehenna, where there is immeasurable darkness. But when they have inflicted many punishments on all whose heart was evil, then later 295 a fiery wheel from the great river will press them hard all around, because they were concerned with wicked deeds… 305 They will all gnash their teeth, wasting away with thirst and raging violence. They will call death fair, and it will evade them. No longer will death or night give these rest. Often they will request God, who rules on high, in vain, 310 and then he will manifestly turn away his face from them. (Sibylline Oracles 2.283-310, OTP 1:352-53)



[1] “Jewish literature is often more graphic than the frightful descriptions of hell found in Christian apocalypses. The rabbis speak of licentious men hanging by their genitals, women who publically suckled their children hanging by their breasts, and those who talked during synagogue prayers having their mouths filled with hot coals.” [William Crockett, “The Metaphorical View,” in Four Views on Hell (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 46; cf. D. F. Watson, “Gehenna,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, 2:926-28]

APOSTOLIC FATHERS

APOSTOLIC FATHERS

(cf. 2 Clement 6:7; 17:7; Martyrdom of Polycarp 2:3; 11:2; Epistle to Diognetus 10:7-8; Ignatius, Ephesians 16:2; Apocalypse of Peter 20-33)[1]

For if we do the will of Christ, we will find rest; but if we do not, if we disobey his commandments, then nothing will save us from eternal punishment… For they do not know what great torment the pleasure of the present brings, and what delight the promise of the future brings… He means that day of judgment, when people will see those among us who lived ungodly lives and perverted the commandments of Jesus Christ. But the righteous, having done good and endured torments and hated the pleasures of the soul, when they see how those who have gone astray and denied Jesus by their words or by their actions are being punished with dreadful torments in unquenchable fire, will give glory to their God. (2 Clement 6:7; 10:4; 17:6-7; Holmes AF, 113, 17, 25)

And turning their thoughts to the grace of Christ they despised the tortures of this world, purchasing at the cost of one hour an exemption from eternal punishment. And the fire of their inhuman torturers felt cold to them, for they set before their eyes the escape from that eternal fire which is never extinguished, while with the eyes of their heart they gazed upon the good things which are reserved for those who endure patiently. (Martyrdom of Polycarp 2:3; Holmes AF, 229)

Then he said to him again: “I will have you consumed by fire, since you despise the wild beasts, unless you change your mind.” But Polycarp said: “You threaten with a fire that burns only briefly and after just a little while is extinguished, for you are ignorant of the fire of the coming judgment and eternal punishment, which is reserved for the ungodly. But why do you delay? Come, do what you wish.” (Martyrdom of Polycarp 11:2; Holmes AF, 235)

…when you despise the apparent death here on earth, when you fear the real death, which is reserved for those who will be condemned to the eternal fire which will punish to the very end those delivered to it. Then you will admire those who for righteousness’ sake endure the transitory fire, and you will consider them blessed, when you comprehend that other fire. (Epistle to Diognetus 10:7-8; Holmes AF, 549-51)

Now if those who do such things physically are put to death, how much more if by evil teaching someone corrupts faith in God, for which Jesus Christ was crucified! Such a person, having polluted himself, will go to the unquenchable fire, as will also the one who listens to him. (Ignatius, Ephesians, 16:2; Holmes AF, 147)

And over against that place I saw another, squalid, and it was the place of punishment; and those who were punished there and the punishing angels had their raiment dark like the air of the place. 21 And there were certain there hanging by the tongue: and these were the blasphemers of the way of righteousness; and under them lay fire, burning and punishing them. 22 And there was a great lake, full of flaming mire, in which were certain men that pervert righteousness, and tormenting angels afflicted them… 26 And other men and women were burning up to the middle and were cast into a dark place and were beaten by evil spirits, and their inwards were eaten by restless worms: and these were they who persecuted the righteous and delivered them up… 28 And over against these again other men and women gnawing their tongues and having flaming fire in their mouths: and these were the false witnesses. 29 And in a certain other place there were pebbles sharper than swords or any spit, red-hot, and women and men in tattered and filthy raiment rolled about on them in punishment: and these were the rich who trusted in their riches and had no pity for orphans and widows, and despised the commandment of God. 30 And in another great lake, full of pitch and blood and mire bubbling up, there stood men and women up to their knees: and these were the usurers and those who take interest on interest… 32 And alongside of that cliff there was a place full of much fire, and there stood men who with their own hands had made for themselves carven images instead of God. And alongside of these were other men and women, having rods and striking each other and never ceasing from such punishment. 33 And others again near them, women and men, burning and turning themselves and roasting: and these were they that leaving the way of God[…] (Apocalypse of Peter 20-33; ANF 9:145-46)

But in the times of the kingdom, the earth has been called again by Christ to its pristine condition, and Jerusalem rebuilt after the pattern of the Jerusalem above… Moreover, he says, “the book of life was opened, and the dead were judged out of those things that were written in the books, according to their works; and death and hell were sent into the lake of fire, the second death.” Now this is what is called Gehenna, which the Lord styled eternal fire. “And if any one,” it is said, “was not found written in the book of life, he was sent into the lake of fire.” (Iranaeus, Against Heresies, 5.35.2; ANF 1:565-66)



[1] “In Christian literature we find blasphemers hanging by their tongues. Adulterous women who plaited their hair to entice men dangle over boiling mire by their necks or hair. Slanderers chew their tongues, hot irons burn their eyes. Other evildoers suffer in equally picturesque ways. Murderers are cast into pits filled with venomous reptiles, and worms fill their bodies. Women who had abortions sit neck deep in the excretions of the damned. Those who chatted idly during church stand in a pool of burning sulphur and pitch. Idolaters are driven up cliffs by demons where they plunge to the rocks below, only to be driven up again. Those who turned their backs on God are turned and baked slowly in the fires of hell… Annihilationists often construct awkward scenarios where the wicked are consumed but the fire burns forever, or where the wicked suffer greatly but temporarily in an unquenchable fire. To solve a problem they construct a fire that rages endlessly, even though the wicked would have been consumed during the first moments of eternity. Is this what the second-century writers were trying to say? That the wicked will be destroyed in eternal, indestructible fires? Or were they following that line of thought that speaks of eternal, conscious punishment for the wicked? Is seems to me that some annihilationists look for any straw in the wind to keep from admitting that early Christians affirmed eternal, conscious punishment.” (Crockett, Four Views on Hell, 46-47, 66)

PRESENT HADES VERSUS FUTURE GEHENNA

PRESENT HADES VERSUS FUTURE GEHENNA

 

Present – Temporal Under the Earth

Future – Eternal Upon the Earth

Gk. hadēs (Hb. sheol) – “Hades, underworld, abode of dead” (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; Num. 16:30, 33; Deut. 32:22; 1 Sam. 2:6; 1 Ki. 2:6, 9, 35; Ps. 6:6; 9:18; 15:10; 17:6; 29:4; 30:18; 48:15f; 54:16; 85:13; 87:4; 88:49; 93:17; 113:25; 114:3; 138:8; 140:7; Prov. 1:12; 2:18; 5:5; 7:27; 9:18; 14:12; 15:11, 24; 16:25; 27:20; 30:16; Eccl. 9:10; Is. 5:14; 14:9, 11, 15, 19; 28:15, 18; 38:10, 18; 57:9; Ez. 31:15ff; 32:27; Dan. 3:88; Hos. 13:14; Amos 9:2; Jon. 2:3; Hab. 2:5; Mt. 11:23; 16:18; Lk. 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:27, 31; Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 20:13f) Gk. gehenna (Hb. gehinnōm) – “Gehenna, valley of hinnom [temporal], hell” ([Jos. 15:8; 18:16; 2 Ki. 23:10; 2 Chr. 28:3; 33:6; Neh. 11:30; Jer. 7:31f; 19:2, 6; 32:35] Mt. 5:22, 29f; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mk. 9:43, 45, 47; Lk. 12:5; Jas. 3:6)iGk. gehennan tou puros – “fire of Gehenna, hell fire” (Mt. 5:22; 18:9)Gk. Tapheth (Hb. topheth) – “place of fire [within gehenna]” (2 Ki. 23:10; Is. 30:33; Jer. 7:31f; 19:6, 11ff)
Gk. abussos (Hb. tehom) – “Abyss, deep, depths, bottomless pit” (Job 28:14; 38:16; Ps. 71:20; 106:26; 135:6; Ez. 31:15; Am. 7:4; Jon. 2:6; Hab. 3:10; Lk. 8:31; Rom. 10:7; Rev. 9:1f, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3) Gk. limnē tou puros – “lake of fire” (Rev 19:20; 20:10, 14f; 21:8; cf. Is. 30:33)Gk. kaminos tou puros – “furnace of fire” (Mt. 13:42, 50; cf. Ps. 21:9; Is. 31:9; Mal. 4:1)
Gk. diaphthora (Hb. shachath)– “pit [of sheol], destruction, corruption” (Ps. 9:15; 16:10; 55:23; 107:20; Job 33:28; Acts 2:27, 31; 13:34fff) Gk. puri asbestos – “unquenchable fire” (Mt. 3:12; Mk. 9:43, 48; Lk. 3:17; cf. Is. 34:9f; 66:24)
Gk. hupokatō tēs gēs – “under, underneath the earth” (Ex. 20:4i; Duet. 4:18i; 5:18i; Rev. 5:3, 13)Gk. katōteros tēs gēs – “lower (parts) of the earth” (Eph. 4:9)Gk. katōtatos [tēs gēs] – “lowest (parts) [of the earth]” (Ps. 86:13; 88:6 [Ps. 62:10; 139:15])Gk. katachthonios – “subterranean” (Phil. 2:10) Gk. pur to aiōnion – “everlasting, eternal fire” (Mt. 18:8; 25:41; Jude 1:7; cf. Is. 33:14)Gk. kolasin aiōnion – “everlasting, eternal punishment” (Mt. 25:46; cf. Is. 24:21f; Dan. 12:2)Gk. krimatos aiōniou – “everlasting, eternal judgment” (Heb. 6:2; cf. Is. 9:6; Jer. 23:5)Gk. aiōnios olethros – “everlasting, eternal destruction” (2 Thess. 1:9; cf. Ps. 2:12; Is. 11:9)
Gk. bathos [tēs gēs] – “deep, depth [of the earth]”(Rom. 8:39; Ps. 68:16ii; 130:1ii; Is. 7:11* [Ez. 26:20; 31:18; 32:24])Gk. bothros – “deep pit, grave” (Ez. 26:20; 31:14, 18; 32:21*ff, 29f]) Gk. skotos to exōteron – “outside, outer darkness” (Mt. 8:12; 22:13; 25:30; cf. Gen. 1:4; Ps. 107:14)Gk. zophos tou skotous – “utter, blackest darkness” (2 Pe. 2:17; Jude 1:13; cf. Joel 2:2; Zeph. 1:15)
Gk. tartaroō – “cast into Tartaros [‘Netherworld, depths of Hades’]” (2 Pe.2:4) Gk. anastasin kriseōs – “resurrection of judgment, damnation” (Jn. 5:29; cf. Dan. 12:2; Acts 24:15)
Gk. thanatos (Hb. maveth) – “Death, realm of dead” (Ps. 18:4f; 88:6 [LXX]; 107:14; 116:3; Acts 2:24; Rev. 1:18; 20:13) Gk. deuteros thanatos – “second death” (Rev. 2:11; 20:6; 20:14; 21:8)

 

 

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LAKOG Class 7a Justice movements abound today, among believer and unbeliever alike. What makes a justice movement true or false? The justice of God throughout redemptive history provides a standard by which to anchor our hearts. Temporal judgments in this age point to the eternal judgment in Gehenna, and thus even temporal judgments are fundamentally merciful in nature. John begins covering his notes for this class at around the 13 minute mark.<br /> In relation to the video of this class, the picture does not show up until 2 minutes and 40 seconds into it. Our apologies for any inconvenience. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6082-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6082
The Justice Of God In Redemptive History Part 2 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Sat, 01 Jun 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6634 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 Justice movements abound today, among believer and unbeliever alike. What makes a justice movement true or false? The justice of God throughout redemptive history provides a standard by which to anchor our hearts. Temporal judgments in this age point to the eternal judgment in Gehenna, and thus even temporal judgments are fundamentally merciful in nature. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – Session 7b

 

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Justice movements abound today, among believer and unbeliever alike. What makes a justice movement true or false? The justice of God throughout redemptive history provides a standard by which to anchor our hearts. Temporal judgments in this age point to the eternal judgment in Gehenna, and thus even temporal judgments are fundamentally merciful in nature.

NOTES

The content of this classes notes are below with partial formatting. If you would like to see the notes with complete formatting,

Download “The Justice of God in Redemptive History” Notes and

Download “SN Gehenna and Eternal Bodily Torment” Notes

Because this is part 2 of these notes, John begins at letter D under “Justice and Cruciform-Apocalypticism.”

The Justice Of God In Redemptive History

JUSTICE AND CRUCIFORM-APOCALYPTICISM

JUSTICE AND CRUCIFORM-APOCALYPTICISM

A.             Gehenna: The Fulfillment of Divine Justice

The LORD will cause men to hear his majestic voice and will make them see his arm coming down with raging anger and consuming fire, with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail… 33 Topheth [cf. 2 Ki. 23:10; Jer. 7:31f; 19:6-14] has long been prepared; it has been made ready for the king. Its fire pit has been made deep and wide, with an abundance of fire and wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze. (NIV Isaiah 30:30-33) [1]

If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell [Gk. gehenna].  30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell [Gk. gehenna]. (ESV Matthew 5:29-30)

If your hand or your foot causes you to sin cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life maimed or crippled than to have two hands or two feet and be thrown into eternal fire9 And if your eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into the fire of hell [Gk. gehenna]. (NIV Matthew 18:8-9)

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell [Gk. gehenna] as yourselves… 33 You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell [Gk. gehenna]? (ESV Matthew 23:15, 33)

If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life maimed than with two hands to go into hell [Gk. gehenna], where the fire never goes out47 And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into hell [Gk. gehenna], 48 where “their worm does not die, and the fire is not quenched.” [Is. 66:24] (NIV Mark 9:43-48)

Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.  2 Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known.  3 Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops.  4 “I tell you, my friends, do not fear those who kill the body, and after that have nothing more that they can do.  5 But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell [Gk. gehenna]. Yes, I tell you, fear him! (ESV Luke 12:1-5)

If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand,  10 he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.  11 And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever, and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name. (ESV Revelation 14:9-11)

And the devil, who deceived them, was thrown into the lake of burning sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet had been thrown. They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever13 The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and each person was judged according to what he had done.  14 Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. The lake of fire is the second death.  15 If anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. (NIV Revelation 20:10-15)

B.             The Day of Justice

I tell you, on the day of judgment people will give account for every careless word they speak,  37 for by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned. (ESV Matthew 12:36-37)

And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man.  28 Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice  29 and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment. (ESV John 5:25-29)

1-Severity-of-Divine-Judgment-Scale

But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed. (ESV Romans 2:5)

But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly. (ESV 2 Peter 3:7)

C.              The Holding for Eschatological Justice

For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell (Gk. tartarus) and committed them to chains of gloomy darkness to be kept until the judgment6 if by turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to ashes he condemned them to extinction, making them an example of what is going to happen to the ungodly… 9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from trials, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment until the day of judgment. (ESV 2 Peter 2:4-9)[2]

2-Hades-Gehenna

And the angels who did not stay within their own position of authority, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains under gloomy darkness until the judgment of the great day-  7 just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire. (ESV Jude 1:6-7)

Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,  2 for true and just are his judgments. He has condemned the great prostitute who corrupted the earth by her adulteries… Hallelujah! The smoke from her goes up for ever and ever… Hallelujah! For our Lord God Almighty reigns.  7 Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory! (NIV Revelation 19:1-7)

D.             Temporal and Eternal Justice

But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.  21 I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality.  22 Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works,  23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you as your works deserve. (ESV Revelation 2:20-23)

3-Blessing-Judgment

For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes27 Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord28 Let a person examine himself, then, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup.  29 For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment on himself30 That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died.  31 But if we judged ourselves truly, we would not be judged.  32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined so that we may not be condemned along with the world. (ESV 1 Corinthians 11:26-32)

E.              This Age and the Mercy of God

About this time Jesus was informed that Pilate had murdered some people from Galilee as they were sacrificing at the Temple in Jerusalem.  2 “Do you think those Galileans were worse sinners than other people from Galilee?” he asked. “Is that why they suffered?  3 Not at all! And you will also perish unless you turn from your evil ways and turn to God4 And what about the eighteen men who died when the Tower of Siloam fell on them? Were they the worst sinners in Jerusalem?  5 No, and I tell you again that unless you repent, you will also perish.” (NLT Luke 13:1-5)

In the past God overlooked such ignorance, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent31 For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead. (NIV Acts 17:30-31)

But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly… 9 The Lord is not slow to fulfill his promise as some count slowness, but is patient toward you, not wishing that any should perish, but that all should reach repentance. (ESV 2 Peter 3:7-9)



[1] “Southwest of the city was the Valley of Hinnom, an area that had a long history of desecration. The steep gorge was once used to burn children in sacrifice to the Ammonite god Molech (2 Kings 23:10; Jer. 7:31; 32:35). Jeremiah denounced such practices by saying that Hinnom Valley would become the valley of God’s judgment, a place of slaughter (Jer. 7:32; 19:5-7). As the years passed, a sense of foreboding hung over the valley. People began to burn their garbage and offal there, using sulfur, the flammable substance we now use in matches and gunpowder. Eventually, the Hebrew name ge-hinnom (canyon of Hinnom) evolved into geenna (gehenna), the familiar Greek word for hell (Matt. 5:22, 29; 10:28; 18:9; 23:33; Mark 9:43, 45; Luke 12:5). Thus when the Jews talked about punishment in the next life, what better image could they use than the smoldering valley they called gehenna? … Some Jews, of course, took the fiery images literally, supposing that Hinnom Valley itself would become the place of hellfire and judgment (1 Enoch 27:1-2; 54:1-6; 56:3-4; 90:26-28; 4 Ezra 7:36).” (William V. Crockett, “The Metaphorical View,” in Four Views on Hell [Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996], 58)

[2] “Fundamental for an understanding of the γέεννα passages in the NT, which occur only in the Synoptists and John, is the sharp distinction made by the NT between → ᾅδης and γέεννα. This distinction is a. that Hades receives the ungodly only for the intervening period between death and resurrection, whereas Gehenna is their place of punishment in the last judgment; the judgment of the former is thus provisional but the torment of the latter eternal (Mk. 9:43 and par.; 9:48). It is then b. that the souls of the ungodly are outside the body in Hades, whereas in Gehenna both body and soul, reunited at the resurrection, are destroyed by eternal fire (Mk. 9:43 and par., 45, 47 and par., 48; Mt. 10:28 and par.).” (J. Jeremias, “γέεννα,” TDNT, 1:658)

GOD'S DESIRE FOR JUSTICE

GOD’S DESIRE FOR JUSTICE

A.             The Prophetic Testimony

The LORD examines the righteous, but the wicked and those who love violence his soul hates6 On the wicked he will rain fiery coals and burning sulfur; a scorching wind will be their lot.  7 For the LORD is righteous, he loves justice; upright men will see his face. (NIV Psalm 11:5-7)

Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, let not the mighty man boast in his might, let not the rich man boast in his riches,  24 but let him who boasts boast in this, that he understands and knows me, that I am the LORD who practices steadfast love, justice, and righteousness in the earth. For in these things I delight, declares the LORD. (ESV Jeremiah 9:23-24)

But as for me, I am filled with power, with the Spirit of the LORD, and with justice and might, to declare to Jacob his transgression and to Israel his sin.  9 Hear this, you heads of the house of Jacob and rulers of the house of Israel, who detest justice and make crooked all that is straight,  10 who build Zion with blood and Jerusalem with iniquity.  11 Its heads give judgment for a bribe; its priests teach for a price; its prophets practice divination for money; yet they lean on the LORD and say, “Is not the LORD in the midst of us? No disaster shall come upon us.” (ESV Micah 3:8-11)

“Thus says the LORD of hosts, Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another,  10 do not oppress the widow, the fatherless, the sojourner, or the poor, and let none of you devise evil against another in your heart.”  11 But they refused to pay attention and turned a stubborn shoulder and stopped their ears that they might not hear.  12 They made their hearts diamond-hard lest they should hear the law and the words that the LORD of hosts had sent by his Spirit through the former prophets. Therefore great anger came from the LORD of hosts. (ESV Zechariah 7:9-12)

B.             The Call to Imitate the Justice of God

For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation for all people,  12 training us to renounce ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright, and godly lives in the present age,  13 waiting for our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ,  14 who gave himself for us to redeem us from all lawlessness and to purify for himself a people for his own possession who are zealous for good works. (ESV Titus 2:11-14)

Therefore, preparing your minds for action, and being sober-minded, set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ.  14 As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance,  15 but as he who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct16 since it is written, “You shall be holy, for I am holy.”  17 And if you call on him as Father who judges impartially according to each one’s deeds, conduct yourselves with fear throughout the time of your exile. (ESV 1 Peter 1:13-17)

When you are assembled in the name of the Lord Jesus and my spirit is present, with the power of our Lord Jesus,  5 you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord… 11 I am writing to you not to associate with anyone who bears the name of brother if he is guilty of sexual immorality or greed, or is an idolater, reviler, drunkard, or swindler—not even to eat with such a one.  12 For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Is it not those inside the church whom you are to judge?  13 God judges those outside. “Purge the evil person from among you.”  6:1 When one of you has a grievance against another, does he dare go to law before the unrighteous instead of the saints?  2 Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is to be judged by you, are you incompetent to try trivial cases?  3 Do you not know that we are to judge angels? How much more, then, matters pertaining to this life!  4 So if you have such cases, why do you lay them before those who have no standing in the church?  5 I say this to your shame. Can it be that there is no one among you wise enough to settle a dispute between the brothers,  6 but brother goes to law against brother, and that before unbelievers7 To have lawsuits at all with one another is already a defeat for you. Why not rather suffer wrong? Why not rather be defrauded?  8 But you yourselves wrong and defraud—even your own brothers! (ESV 1 Corinthians 5:4-6:8)

C.              The Call to Imitate the Mercy of God

Once you were not a people, but now you are God’s people; once you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy11 Beloved, I urge you as sojourners and exiles to abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul.  12 Keep your conduct among the Gentiles honorable, so that when they speak against you as evildoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day of visitation.  13 Be subject for the Lord’s sake to every human institution… 18 Servants, be subject to your masters with all respect, not only to the good and gentle but also to the unjust19 For this is a gracious thing, when, mindful of God, one endures sorrows while suffering unjustly20 For what credit is it if, when you sin and are beaten for it, you endure? But if when you do good and suffer for it you endure, this is a gracious thing in the sight of God.  21 For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps22 He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in his mouth.  23 When he was reviled, he did not revile in return; when he suffered, he did not threaten, but continued entrusting himself to him who judges justly. (ESV 1 Peter 2:10-23)

Beloved, do not be surprised at the fiery trial when it comes upon you to test you, as though something strange were happening to you.  13 But rejoice insofar as you share Christ’s sufferings, that you may also rejoice and be glad when his glory is revealed.  14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you.  15 But let none of you suffer as a murderer or a thief or an evildoer or as a meddler.  16 Yet if anyone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in that name.  17 For it is time for judgment to begin at the household of God; and if it begins with us, what will be the outcome for those who do not obey the gospel of God?  18 And “If the righteous is scarcely saved, what will become of the ungodly and the sinner?”  19 Therefore let those who suffer according to God’s will entrust their souls to a faithful Creator while doing good. (ESV 1 Peter 4:12-19) 

 

Supplemental Notes: Gehenna and Eternal Bodily Torment

BIBLICAL FOUNDATION

BIBLICAL FOUNDATION

(cf. Ps. 21:9; Is. 30:33; 31:9; 34:9f; 66:24; Jer. 7:32; 19:6; Mal. 4:1; Dan. 12:2; Mt. 5:22, 29f; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; 25:46; Mk. 9:43, 45, 47; Lk. 12:5; Jn. 5:29; Acts 24:15; 2 Thess. 1:9; Heb. 6:2; 2 Pe. 2:17; Jude 1:7, 13; Rev. 19:20; 20:10, 14f; 21:8)

The LORD will cause men to hear his majestic voice and will make them see his arm coming down with raging anger and consuming fire, with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail… 33 Topheth [“which is the Valley of the Son of Hinnom”, 2 Ki. 23:10; cf. Jer. 7:31; 19:6; 32:35] has long been prepared; it has been made ready for the king. Its fire pit has been made deep and wide, with an abundance of fire and wood; the breath of the LORD, like a stream of burning sulfur, sets it ablaze. (NIV Isaiah 30:30-33)

For just as the new heavens and the new earth which I make will endure before me, declares the LORD, so your offspring and your name will endure.  23 And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from sabbath to sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before me, says the LORD.  24 Then they will go forth and look on the corpses of the men who have transgressed against me. For their worm will not die and their fire will not be quenched; and they will be an abhorrence to all mankind. (NASB Isaiah 66:22-24)

So beware, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when people will no longer call it Topheth or the Valley of Ben Hinnom, but the Valley of Slaughter, for they will bury the dead in Topheth until there is no more room.  33 Then the carcasses of this people will become food for the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and there will be no one to frighten them away.  34 I will bring an end to the sounds of joy and gladness and to the voices of bride and bridegroom in the towns of Judah and the streets of Jerusalem, for the land will become desolate. (NIV Jeremiah 7:32-34)

And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life crippled than with two hands to go to hell [Gk. gehenna], to the unquenchable fire47 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell [Gk. gehenna], 48 ‘where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.’ (ESV Mark 9:43)

Just as the weeds are gathered and burned with fire, so will it be at the close of the age.  41 The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all law-breakers,  42 and throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (ESV Matthew 13:40-42)

Then he will say to those on his left, “Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.” … 46 And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. (ESV Matthew 25:41-46)

If anyone worships the beast and its image and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand,  10 he also will drink the wine of God’s wrath, poured full strength into the cup of his anger, and he will be tormented with fire and sulfur [cf. 19:20; 21:8] in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.  11 And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever [cf. 20:10], and they have no rest, day or night, these worshipers of the beast and its image, and whoever receives the mark of its name. (ESV Revelation 14:9-11)

INTERTESTAMENTAL LITERATURE

INTERTESTAMENTAL LITERATURE

(Judith 16:17; Sirach 7:17; 4 Ezra 2:29; 7:26-42; 4 Maccabees 9:9; 10:10-15; 12:12; 13:15; 1 Enoch 10.13; 18.9-16; 26-27; 48.8-10; 54.1-6; 56.1-4; 90.24-27; 100.7-9; 103.7-8; 108.4-7; 2 Enoch 10.1-3; 40.12-13; 63.4; 2 Baruch 30.4-5; 44.12-15; 51.6; 59.2; 64.7-10; 83.8; 85.12-13; Assumption of Moses 10:10; Jubilees 36.9-11; Sibylline Oracles 1.100-03, 349-50; 2.283-312; 4.179-91)[1]

Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; he will send fire and worms into their flesh; they shall weep in pain forever. (NRSV Judith 16:17)

Humble yourself to the utmost, for the punishment of the ungodly is fire and worms. (NRSV Sirach 7:17)

For indeed the time will come, when the signs that I have foretold to you will come to pass… 32 The earth shall give up those who are asleep in it, and the dust those who rest there in silence; and the chambers shall give up the souls that have been committed to them.  33 The Most High shall be revealed on the seat of judgment, and compassion shall pass away, and patience shall be withdrawn.  34 Only judgment shall remain, truth shall stand, and faithfulness shall grow strong.  35 Recompense shall follow, and the reward shall be manifested; righteous deeds shall awake, and unrighteous deeds shall not sleep.  36 The pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight.  37 Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, ‘Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised.  38 Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments.’ Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment–  39 a day that has no sun or moon or stars,  40 or cloud or thunder or lightning, or wind or water or air, or darkness or evening or morning,  41 or summer or spring or heat or winter or frost or cold, or hail or rain or dew,  42 or noon or night, or dawn or shining or brightness or light, but only the splendor of the glory of the Most High, by which all shall see what has been destined. (NRSV 4 Ezra 7:26-42)

For we, through this severe suffering and endurance, shall have the prize of virtue and shall be with God, on whose account we suffer;  9 but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. (NRSV 4 Maccabees 9:8-9)

When he was about to die, he said,  10 “We, most abominable tyrant, are suffering because of our godly training and virtue,  11 but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments.”  12 When he too had died in a manner worthy of his brothers, they dragged in the fourth, saying,  13 “As for you, do not give way to the same insanity as your brothers, but obey the king and save yourself.”  14 But he said to them, “You do not have a fire hot enough to make me play the coward.  15 No—by the blessed death of my brothers, by the eternal destruction of the tyrant, and by the everlasting life of the pious, I will not renounce our noble family ties.” (NRSV 4 Maccabees 10:9-15)

You profane tyrant, most impious of all the wicked, since you have received good things and also your kingdom from God, were you not ashamed to murder his servants and torture on the wheel those who practice religion?  12 Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. (NRSV 4 Maccabees 12:11-12)

Let us not fear him who thinks he is killing us,  15 for great is the struggle of the soul and the danger of eternal torment lying before those who transgress the commandment of God. (NRSV 4 Maccabees 13:14-15)

In those days they shall be led off to the abyss of fire: and to the torment and the prison in which they shall be confined for ever. 14 And whosoever shall be condemned and destroyed will from thenceforth be bound together with them to the end of all generations. (1 Enoch 10.13-14, POT)

At that moment, I said, “For what purpose does this blessed land, entirely filled with trees, have in its midst this accursed valley?” 2 Then, Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, answered me and said to me, “This accursed valley is for those accursed forever; here will gather together all those accursed ones, those who speak with their mouth unbecoming words against the Lord and utter hard words concerning his glory. Here shall they be gathered together, and here shall be their judgment, in the last days. There will be upon them the spectacle of the righteous judgment, in the presence of the righteous forever. The merciful will bless the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, all the day. (1 Enoch 27:1-3, OTP)

In these days downcast in countenance shall the kings of the earth have become, and the strong who possess the land because of the works of their hands, for on the day of their anguish and affliction they shall not be able to save themselves. 9 And I will give them over into the hands of Mine elect: as straw in the fire so shall they burn before the face of the holy: as lead in the water shall they sink before the face of the righteous, and no trace of them shall any more be found. 10 And on the day of their affliction there shall be rest on the earth, and before them they shall fall and not rise again: and there shall be no one to take them with his hands and raise them: for they have denied the Lord of Spirits and His Anointed. The name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed. (1 Enoch 48:8-10, POT)

Then I looked and turned to another face of the earth and saw there a valley, deep and burning with fire. And they were bringing kings and potentates and were throwing them into this deep valley. And my eyes saw there their chains while they were making them into iron fetters of immense weight… “Then Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel themselves shall seize them on that great day of judgment and cast them into the furnace of fire that is burning that day, so that the Lord of the Spirits may take vengeance on them on account of their oppressive deeds which they performed as messengers of Satan, leading astray those who dwell upon the earth.” (1 Enoch 54:1-6, OTP)

Then I kept seeing till a throne was erected in a pleasant land; and he sat upon if for the Lord of the sheep; and he took all the sealed books and opened those very books in the presence of the Lord of the sheep… 24 Then his judgment took place. First among the stars, they received their judgment and were found guilty, and they went to the place of condemnation; and they were thrown into an abyss, full of fire and flame and full of the pillar of fire. 25 Then those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty; and they were cast into that fiery abyss. 26 In the meantime I saw how another abyss like it, full of fire, was opened wide in the middle of the ground; and they brought those blinded sheep, all of which were judged, found guilty, and cast into this fiery abyss, and they were burned—the abyss is to the right of that house; 27 thus I saw those sheep while they were burning—their bones also were burning. (1 Enoch 90:20-27, OTP)

And the Most High will arise on that day of judgment in order to execute a great judgment upon all the sinners… Woe unto you, sinners, when you oppress the righteous ones, in the day of hard anguish, and burn them with fire! You shall be recompensed according to your deeds. Woe unto you, you hard of heart, who are watchful to devise evil! Fear shall seize you, and none shall come to your aid. Woe unto you, sinners, because of the words of your hands! On account of the deeds of your wicked ones, in blazing flames worse than fire, it shall burn. (1 Enoch 100.4-9, OTP)

Woe unto you sinners who are dead! … You yourselves know that they will bring your souls down to Sheol; and they shall experience evil and great tribulation—in darkness, nets, and burning flame. Your souls shall enter into the great judgment; it shall be a great judgment in all the generations of the world. Woe unto you, for there is no peace for you! (1 Enoch 103.5-8, OTP)

As for you, wait patiently until sin passes away, for the names of the sinners shall be blotted out from the Book of Life and the books of the Holy One; their seeds shall be destroyed forever and their spirits shall perish and die; they shall cry and lament in a place that is an invisible wilderness and burn in the fire—for there exists ground there as upon the earth. I also saw there something like an invisible cloud; and though I could see that it was completely dark yet I could not see the flame of its fire because it was burning brightly; and there were some things like bright mountains which formed a ring around it and which were tossing it to and fro. Then I asked one of the holy angels who was with me, saying to him, “What is this bright thing? For it is not a heaven but merely the flame of a fire which is burning—and a voice of weeping, crying, and lamenting as well as strong pain.” And he said unto me, “This place which you see, into it shall be taken the spirits of sinners, blasphemers, those who do evil, and those who alter all the things which the Lord has done through the mouth of the prophets, all of which have to be fulfilled.” (1 Enoch 108.3-6, OTP)

And those men carried me to the northern region; and they showed me there a very frightful place; 2 and all kinds of torture and torment are in that place, cruel darkness and lightless gloom. And there is no light there, and a black fire blazes up perpetually, with a river of fire that comes out over the whole place, fire here, freezing ice there, and it dries up and it freezes; and very cruel places of detention and dark and merciless angels, carrying instruments of atrocities torturing without pity. (2 Enoch 10.1-3, OTP 1:118)

I wrote down the height from the earth to the seventh heaven, and the depth to the lowermost hell, and the place of condemnation, and the supremely large hell, open and weeping. 13 And I saw how the prisoners were in pain, looking forward to endless punishment; and I recorded all those who have been condemned by the judge, and all their sentences and all their corresponding deeds… 41.2 And I said to their faces, ‘It would have been better if I had not seen you, nor heard about your activities, nor that any member of my tribe had been brought to you. To what a small extent they have sinned in this life, but in the eternal life they will suffer forever.’ (2 Enoch 40.12-41.2, OTP 1:166-68)

Every proud and magniloquent man is hateful to the Lord, and every false speech, clothed in untruth; it will be cut with the blade of the sword of death, and thrown into the fire, and shall burn for all time. (2 Enoch 63.4, POT 2:466)

And the hour comes which abides for ever. And the new world comes which does not turn to corruption those who depart to its blessedness, and has no mercy on those who depart to torment, and leads not to perdition those who live in it… 15 For to them shall be given the world to come, but the dwelling of the rest who are many shall be in the fire. (2 Baruch 44:12-15, POT)

For at that time the lamp of the eternal law shone on all those who sat in darkness, which announced to them that believe, the promise of their reward, and to them that deny, the torment of fire which is reserved for them. (2 Baruch 59:2, POT)

On this account Manasseh was at that time named “the impious”, and finally his abode was in the fire9 For he had not lived perfectly, for he was not worthy—but that thenceforward he might know by whom finally he should be tormented. 10 For he who is able to benefit is also able to torment. (2 Baruch 64:7-10, POT)

There is the proclamation of judgment to corruption, regarding the way to the fire and the path that leads to the glowing coals [“Gehenna”, POT]. 14 Therefore, there is one Law by One, one world and an end for all those who exist. 15 Then he will make alive those whom he has found, and he will purge them from sins, and at the same time he will destroy those who are polluted with sins. (2 Baruch 85.13-15, OTP)

And God will exalt thee, and He will cause thee to approach to the heaven of the stars, in the place of their habitation. 10 And thou shalt look from on high and shalt see thy enemies in Gehenna, and thou shalt recognize them and rejoice, and thou shalt give thanks and confess thy Creator. (Assumption of Moses 10:9-10, POT 2:422)

And on the day of turmoil and execration and indignation and wrath, then with devouring burning fire just as he burned Sodom so too he will burn up his land and his city and everything which will be his. And he will be wiped out from the book of the discipline of mankind, and he will not be written on high in The Book of Life for he is written in the one which will be destroyed and pass on to eternal execration so that their judgment will always be renewed with eternal reproach and execration and wrath and torment and indignation and plagues and sickness. (Jubilees 36.10, OTP 2:124)

They [the second generation of men] were mighty, of great form, but nevertheless they went under the dread house of Tartarus guarded by unbreakable bonds, to make retribution, to Gehenna of terrible, raging, undying fire. (Sibylline Oracles 1.100-03, OTP 1:337)

These and the sorcerers and sorceresses in addition to them will the anger of the heavenly imperishable God 285 also bring near to the pillar, around which an undying fiery river flows in a circle. All these at once the angels of the immortal, everlasting God will punish terribly from above with whips of flame, having bound them around with fiery chains 290 and unbreakable bonds. Then, in the dead of night, they will be thrown under many terrible infernal beasts in Gehenna, where there is immeasurable darkness. But when they have inflicted many punishments on all whose heart was evil, then later 295 a fiery wheel from the great river will press them hard all around, because they were concerned with wicked deeds… 305 They will all gnash their teeth, wasting away with thirst and raging violence. They will call death fair, and it will evade them. No longer will death or night give these rest. Often they will request God, who rules on high, in vain, 310 and then he will manifestly turn away his face from them. (Sibylline Oracles 2.283-310, OTP 1:352-53)



[1] “Jewish literature is often more graphic than the frightful descriptions of hell found in Christian apocalypses. The rabbis speak of licentious men hanging by their genitals, women who publically suckled their children hanging by their breasts, and those who talked during synagogue prayers having their mouths filled with hot coals.” [William Crockett, “The Metaphorical View,” in Four Views on Hell (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996), 46; cf. D. F. Watson, “Gehenna,” Anchor Bible Dictionary, 2:926-28]

APOSTOLIC FATHERS

APOSTOLIC FATHERS

(cf. 2 Clement 6:7; 17:7; Martyrdom of Polycarp 2:3; 11:2; Epistle to Diognetus 10:7-8; Ignatius, Ephesians 16:2; Apocalypse of Peter 20-33)[1]

For if we do the will of Christ, we will find rest; but if we do not, if we disobey his commandments, then nothing will save us from eternal punishment… For they do not know what great torment the pleasure of the present brings, and what delight the promise of the future brings… He means that day of judgment, when people will see those among us who lived ungodly lives and perverted the commandments of Jesus Christ. But the righteous, having done good and endured torments and hated the pleasures of the soul, when they see how those who have gone astray and denied Jesus by their words or by their actions are being punished with dreadful torments in unquenchable fire, will give glory to their God. (2 Clement 6:7; 10:4; 17:6-7; Holmes AF, 113, 17, 25)

And turning their thoughts to the grace of Christ they despised the tortures of this world, purchasing at the cost of one hour an exemption from eternal punishment. And the fire of their inhuman torturers felt cold to them, for they set before their eyes the escape from that eternal fire which is never extinguished, while with the eyes of their heart they gazed upon the good things which are reserved for those who endure patiently. (Martyrdom of Polycarp 2:3; Holmes AF, 229)

Then he said to him again: “I will have you consumed by fire, since you despise the wild beasts, unless you change your mind.” But Polycarp said: “You threaten with a fire that burns only briefly and after just a little while is extinguished, for you are ignorant of the fire of the coming judgment and eternal punishment, which is reserved for the ungodly. But why do you delay? Come, do what you wish.” (Martyrdom of Polycarp 11:2; Holmes AF, 235)

…when you despise the apparent death here on earth, when you fear the real death, which is reserved for those who will be condemned to the eternal fire which will punish to the very end those delivered to it. Then you will admire those who for righteousness’ sake endure the transitory fire, and you will consider them blessed, when you comprehend that other fire. (Epistle to Diognetus 10:7-8; Holmes AF, 549-51)

Now if those who do such things physically are put to death, how much more if by evil teaching someone corrupts faith in God, for which Jesus Christ was crucified! Such a person, having polluted himself, will go to the unquenchable fire, as will also the one who listens to him. (Ignatius, Ephesians, 16:2; Holmes AF, 147)

And over against that place I saw another, squalid, and it was the place of punishment; and those who were punished there and the punishing angels had their raiment dark like the air of the place. 21 And there were certain there hanging by the tongue: and these were the blasphemers of the way of righteousness; and under them lay fire, burning and punishing them. 22 And there was a great lake, full of flaming mire, in which were certain men that pervert righteousness, and tormenting angels afflicted them… 26 And other men and women were burning up to the middle and were cast into a dark place and were beaten by evil spirits, and their inwards were eaten by restless worms: and these were they who persecuted the righteous and delivered them up… 28 And over against these again other men and women gnawing their tongues and having flaming fire in their mouths: and these were the false witnesses. 29 And in a certain other place there were pebbles sharper than swords or any spit, red-hot, and women and men in tattered and filthy raiment rolled about on them in punishment: and these were the rich who trusted in their riches and had no pity for orphans and widows, and despised the commandment of God. 30 And in another great lake, full of pitch and blood and mire bubbling up, there stood men and women up to their knees: and these were the usurers and those who take interest on interest… 32 And alongside of that cliff there was a place full of much fire, and there stood men who with their own hands had made for themselves carven images instead of God. And alongside of these were other men and women, having rods and striking each other and never ceasing from such punishment. 33 And others again near them, women and men, burning and turning themselves and roasting: and these were they that leaving the way of God[…] (Apocalypse of Peter 20-33; ANF 9:145-46)

But in the times of the kingdom, the earth has been called again by Christ to its pristine condition, and Jerusalem rebuilt after the pattern of the Jerusalem above… Moreover, he says, “the book of life was opened, and the dead were judged out of those things that were written in the books, according to their works; and death and hell were sent into the lake of fire, the second death.” Now this is what is called Gehenna, which the Lord styled eternal fire. “And if any one,” it is said, “was not found written in the book of life, he was sent into the lake of fire.” (Iranaeus, Against Heresies, 5.35.2; ANF 1:565-66)



[1] “In Christian literature we find blasphemers hanging by their tongues. Adulterous women who plaited their hair to entice men dangle over boiling mire by their necks or hair. Slanderers chew their tongues, hot irons burn their eyes. Other evildoers suffer in equally picturesque ways. Murderers are cast into pits filled with venomous reptiles, and worms fill their bodies. Women who had abortions sit neck deep in the excretions of the damned. Those who chatted idly during church stand in a pool of burning sulphur and pitch. Idolaters are driven up cliffs by demons where they plunge to the rocks below, only to be driven up again. Those who turned their backs on God are turned and baked slowly in the fires of hell… Annihilationists often construct awkward scenarios where the wicked are consumed but the fire burns forever, or where the wicked suffer greatly but temporarily in an unquenchable fire. To solve a problem they construct a fire that rages endlessly, even though the wicked would have been consumed during the first moments of eternity. Is this what the second-century writers were trying to say? That the wicked will be destroyed in eternal, indestructible fires? Or were they following that line of thought that speaks of eternal, conscious punishment for the wicked? Is seems to me that some annihilationists look for any straw in the wind to keep from admitting that early Christians affirmed eternal, conscious punishment.” (Crockett, Four Views on Hell, 46-47, 66)

PRESENT HADES VERSUS FUTURE GEHENNA

PRESENT HADES VERSUS FUTURE GEHENNA

 

Present – Temporal Under the Earth

Future – Eternal Upon the Earth

Gk. hadēs (Hb. sheol) – “Hades, underworld, abode of dead” (Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; Num. 16:30, 33; Deut. 32:22; 1 Sam. 2:6; 1 Ki. 2:6, 9, 35; Ps. 6:6; 9:18; 15:10; 17:6; 29:4; 30:18; 48:15f; 54:16; 85:13; 87:4; 88:49; 93:17; 113:25; 114:3; 138:8; 140:7; Prov. 1:12; 2:18; 5:5; 7:27; 9:18; 14:12; 15:11, 24; 16:25; 27:20; 30:16; Eccl. 9:10; Is. 5:14; 14:9, 11, 15, 19; 28:15, 18; 38:10, 18; 57:9; Ez. 31:15ff; 32:27; Dan. 3:88; Hos. 13:14; Amos 9:2; Jon. 2:3; Hab. 2:5; Mt. 11:23; 16:18; Lk. 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:27, 31; Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 20:13f) Gk. gehenna (Hb. gehinnōm) – “Gehenna, valley of hinnom [temporal], hell” ([Jos. 15:8; 18:16; 2 Ki. 23:10; 2 Chr. 28:3; 33:6; Neh. 11:30; Jer. 7:31f; 19:2, 6; 32:35] Mt. 5:22, 29f; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mk. 9:43, 45, 47; Lk. 12:5; Jas. 3:6)iGk. gehennan tou puros – “fire of Gehenna, hell fire” (Mt. 5:22; 18:9)Gk. Tapheth (Hb. topheth) – “place of fire [within gehenna]” (2 Ki. 23:10; Is. 30:33; Jer. 7:31f; 19:6, 11ff)
Gk. abussos (Hb. tehom) – “Abyss, deep, depths, bottomless pit” (Job 28:14; 38:16; Ps. 71:20; 106:26; 135:6; Ez. 31:15; Am. 7:4; Jon. 2:6; Hab. 3:10; Lk. 8:31; Rom. 10:7; Rev. 9:1f, 11; 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3) Gk. limnē tou puros – “lake of fire” (Rev 19:20; 20:10, 14f; 21:8; cf. Is. 30:33)Gk. kaminos tou puros – “furnace of fire” (Mt. 13:42, 50; cf. Ps. 21:9; Is. 31:9; Mal. 4:1)
Gk. diaphthora (Hb. shachath)– “pit [of sheol], destruction, corruption” (Ps. 9:15; 16:10; 55:23; 107:20; Job 33:28; Acts 2:27, 31; 13:34fff) Gk. puri asbestos – “unquenchable fire” (Mt. 3:12; Mk. 9:43, 48; Lk. 3:17; cf. Is. 34:9f; 66:24)
Gk. hupokatō tēs gēs – “under, underneath the earth” (Ex. 20:4i; Duet. 4:18i; 5:18i; Rev. 5:3, 13)Gk. katōteros tēs gēs – “lower (parts) of the earth” (Eph. 4:9)Gk. katōtatos [tēs gēs] – “lowest (parts) [of the earth]” (Ps. 86:13; 88:6 [Ps. 62:10; 139:15])Gk. katachthonios – “subterranean” (Phil. 2:10) Gk. pur to aiōnion – “everlasting, eternal fire” (Mt. 18:8; 25:41; Jude 1:7; cf. Is. 33:14)Gk. kolasin aiōnion – “everlasting, eternal punishment” (Mt. 25:46; cf. Is. 24:21f; Dan. 12:2)Gk. krimatos aiōniou – “everlasting, eternal judgment” (Heb. 6:2; cf. Is. 9:6; Jer. 23:5)Gk. aiōnios olethros – “everlasting, eternal destruction” (2 Thess. 1:9; cf. Ps. 2:12; Is. 11:9)
Gk. bathos [tēs gēs] – “deep, depth [of the earth]”(Rom. 8:39; Ps. 68:16ii; 130:1ii; Is. 7:11* [Ez. 26:20; 31:18; 32:24])Gk. bothros – “deep pit, grave” (Ez. 26:20; 31:14, 18; 32:21*ff, 29f]) Gk. skotos to exōteron – “outside, outer darkness” (Mt. 8:12; 22:13; 25:30; cf. Gen. 1:4; Ps. 107:14)Gk. zophos tou skotous – “utter, blackest darkness” (2 Pe. 2:17; Jude 1:13; cf. Joel 2:2; Zeph. 1:15)
Gk. tartaroō – “cast into Tartaros [‘Netherworld, depths of Hades’]” (2 Pe.2:4) Gk. anastasin kriseōs – “resurrection of judgment, damnation” (Jn. 5:29; cf. Dan. 12:2; Acts 24:15)
Gk. thanatos (Hb. maveth) – “Death, realm of dead” (Ps. 18:4f; 88:6 [LXX]; 107:14; 116:3; Acts 2:24; Rev. 1:18; 20:13) Gk. deuteros thanatos – “second death” (Rev. 2:11; 20:6; 20:14; 21:8)
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LAKOG Class 7b Justice movements abound today, among believer and unbeliever alike. What makes a justice movement true or false? The justice of God throughout redemptive history provides a standard by which to anchor our hearts. Temporal judgments in this age point to the eternal judgment in Gehenna, and thus even temporal judgments are fundamentally merciful in nature. John begins covering his notes for this class at around the 13 minute mark.<br /> In relation to the video of this class, the picture does not show up until 2 minutes and 40 seconds into it. Our apologies for any inconvenience. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6634-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6634
The Justice Of God In Redemptive History Question And Answer https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Sat, 01 Jun 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6639 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 7's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – Session Q&A

 

DESCRIPTION

In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 7’s teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them.

< 7b JUSTICE OF GOD 2

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LAKOG Class 7 Q&A In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 7's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. FOR VIDEO, NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/justice-of-god-redemptive-history-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6639-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6639
The Sermon on the Mount https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sermon-on-the-mount-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Fri, 31 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6077 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sermon-on-the-mount-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sermon-on-the-mount-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 The Sermon on the Mount (Mt. 5-7) is a simple prophetic exhortation in light of the severity of the Day of the Lord. Far from a “new constitution” of an inaugurated “spiritual kingdom,” the Sermon on the Mount is designed to bring forth repentance and instill the fear of the Lord. How do we live in light of the coming kingdom? The Sermon on the Mount gives great insight. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 5

 

DESCRIPTION

The Sermon on the Mount (Mt. 5-7) is a simple prophetic exhortation in light of the severity of the Day of the Lord. Far from a “new constitution” of an inaugurated “spiritual kingdom,” the Sermon on the Mount is designed to bring forth repentance and instill the fear of the Lord. How do we live in light of the coming kingdom? The Sermon on the Mount gives great insight.

There are no notes for this class.

In relation to the video of this class, the picture does not show up until 14 minutes and 30 seconds into it. Our apologies for any inconvenience. But there is audio during that time.

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LAKOG Class 5 The Sermon on the Mount (Mt. 5-7) is a simple prophetic exhortation in light of the severity of the Day of the Lord. Far from a “new constitution” of an inaugurated “spiritual kingdom,” the Sermon on the Mount is designed to bring forth repentance and instill the fear of the Lord. How do we live in light of the coming kingdom? The Sermon on the Mount gives great insight. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/sermon-on-the-mount-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6077-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6077
The Gift Of The Holy Spirit https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/gift-of-holy-spirit-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Fri, 31 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6079 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/gift-of-holy-spirit-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/gift-of-holy-spirit-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 God gave the Holy Spirit to confirm the witness of the Church (Acts 1:4-8). Within a cruciform-apocalyptic framework, the witness of the Church is substantially the kindness of God embodied in the Cross in light of the severity of God embodied in the Day of the Lord (Acts 10:42f; 17:30f; Rom. 5:8ff; 2 Pet. 3:7ff; etc). In contrast to putting confidence in the flesh for eternal life, we walk according to the Spirit by putting faith in the Cross for eternal life (Gal. 3; Phil. 3; Rom. 8). Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 6

 

DESCRIPTION

God gave the Holy Spirit to confirm the witness of the Church (Acts 1:4-8). Within a cruciform-apocalyptic framework, the witness of the Church is substantially the kindness of God embodied in the Cross in light of the severity of God embodied in the Day of the Lord (Acts 10:42f; 17:30f; Rom. 5:8ff; 2 Pet. 3:7ff; etc). In contrast to putting confidence in the flesh for eternal life, we walk according to the Spirit by putting faith in the Cross for eternal life (Gal. 3; Phil. 3; Rom. 8).

NOTES

The content of this teaching’s notes are below with partial formatting. If you would like to see the notes with complete formatting,

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The Gift Of The Holy Spirit

THE HOLY SPIRIT IN REDEMPTIVE HISTORY

THE HOLY SPIRIT IN REDEMPTIVE HISTORY

A.             Creation

The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.  3 And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. (ESV Genesis 1:2-3)

By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host.  7 He gathers the waters of the sea as a heap; he puts the deeps in storehouses.  8 Let all the earth fear the LORD; let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him! (ESV Psalm 33:6-8)

B.             Consummation

And Jesus said to them, “Truly I say to you, that you who have followed Me, in the regeneration [Gk. paliggenesia, “renewal” NIV/NLT, “new world” ESV] when the Son of Man will sit on His glorious throne, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. (NASB Matthew 19:28)

And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit, who lives in you… 18 For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us.  19 The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed… 22 We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time.  23 Not only so, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies24 For in this hope we were saved. (NIV Romans 8:11-24)

C.              This Age

1-Holy-Spirit-Redemptive-HistoryIt is impossible for those who have once been enlightened, who have tasted the heavenly gift, who have shared in the Holy Spirit5 who have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the coming age6 if they fall away, to be brought back to repentance… (NIV Hebrews 6:4-6) Now we know that if the earthly tent we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God, an eternal house in heaven, not built by human hands.  2 Meanwhile we groan, longing to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling3 because when we are clothed, we will not be found naked.  4 For while we are in this tent, we groan and are burdened, because we do not wish to be unclothed but to be clothed with our heavenly dwelling, so that what is mortal may be swallowed up by life.  5 Now it is God who has made us for this very purpose and has given us the Spirit as a deposit, guaranteeing what is to come. (NIV 2 Corinthians 5:1-5)

THE PROMISE OF THE FATHER

THE PROMISE OF THE FATHER

A.             The Counselor

I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever–  17 the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you… 26 But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you. (NIV John 14:16-26)

When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me27 And you also must testify, for you have been with me from the beginning. (NIV John 15:26-27)

B.             The Witness

Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about. 5 For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit8 you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth. (NIV Acts 1:4-8)

He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that he is the one whom God appointed as judge of the living and the dead43 All the prophets testify about him that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name.”  44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit came on all who heard the message. (NIV Acts 10:42-44)

And he said to them, “Go into all the world and proclaim the gospel to the whole creation.  16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned17 And these signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak in new tongues;  18 they will pick up serpents with their hands; and if they drink any deadly poison, it will not hurt them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover.” … 20 And they went out and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by accompanying signs. (ESV Mark 16:15-20) 

THE TESTIMONY OF THE CROSS

THE TESTIMONY OF THE CROSS

A.             Confirmation of Grace

At Iconium Paul and Barnabas went as usual into the Jewish synagogue. There they spoke so effectively that a great number of Jews and Gentiles believed… 3 So Paul and Barnabas spent considerable time there, speaking boldly for the Lord, who confirmed the message of his grace by enabling them to do miraculous signs and wonders. (NIV Acts 14:1-3)

In love he predestined us for adoption through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will,  6 to the praise of his glorious grace, with which he has blessed us in the Beloved.  7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace,  8 which he lavished upon us, in all wisdom and insight  9 making known to us the mystery of his will… 13 In him you also, when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit14 who is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of his glory. (ESV Ephesians 1:5-14)

“And now, Lord, look upon their threats and grant to your servants to continue to speak your word with all boldness30 while you stretch out your hand to heal, and signs and wonders are performed through the name of your holy servant Jesus.”  31 And when they had prayed, the place in which they were gathered together was shaken, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and continued to speak the word of God with boldness. (ESV Acts 4:29-31)

2-Simple-Timeline

B.             Walking According to the Spirit

“I have been crucified with Christ and I no longer live, but Christ lives in me. The life I live in the body, I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.  21 I do not set aside the grace of God, for if righteousness could be gained through the law, Christ died for nothing!”  3:1 You foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? Before your very eyes Jesus Christ was clearly portrayed as crucified2 I would like to learn just one thing from you: Did you receive the Spirit by observing the law, or by believing what you heard?  3 Are you so foolish? After beginning with the Spirit, are you now trying to attain your goal by human effort?  4 Have you suffered so much for nothing—if it really was for nothing?  5 Does God give you his Spirit and work miracles among you because you observe the law, or because you believe what you heard? (NIV Galatians 2:20-3:5)

Look out for the dogs, look out for the evildoers, look out for those who mutilate the flesh.  3 For we are the real circumcision, who worship by the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh–  4 though I myself have reason for confidence in the flesh also. If anyone else thinks he has reason for confidence in the flesh, I have more:  5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee;  6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness, under the law blameless.  7 But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ.  8 Indeed, I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things and count them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ  9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith-  10 that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death,  11 that by any means possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead.  12 Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect, but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own.  13 Brothers, I do not consider that I have made it my own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead14 I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus. (ESV Philippians 3:2-14)

There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.  2 For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death.  3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh,  4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit6 To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace. (ESV Romans 8:1-6)

C.              The Apostolic End

Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift my Father promised, which you have heard me speak about. 5 For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit… 8 you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth. (NIV Acts 1:4-8)

For as you were once disobedient to God, yet have now obtained mercy through their disobedience,  31 even so these also have now been disobedient, that through the mercy shown you they also may obtain mercy.  32 For God has committed them all to disobedience, that He might have mercy on all 12:1 I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable service.  2 And do not be conformed to this world (Gk. aiōn), but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good and acceptable and perfect will of God. (NKJV Romans 11:30-12:2)

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LAKOG Class 6 God gave the Holy Spirit to confirm the witness of the Church (Acts 1:4-8). Within a cruciform-apocalyptic framework, the witness of the Church is substantially the kindness of God embodied in the Cross in light of the severity of God embodied in the Day of the Lord (Acts 10:42f; 17:30f; Rom. 5:8ff; 2 Pet. 3:7ff; etc). In contrast to putting confidence in the flesh for eternal life, we walk according to the Spirit by putting faith in the Cross for eternal life (Gal. 3; Phil. 3; Rom. 8). FOR VIDEO, NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/gift-of-holy-spirit-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6079-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6079
The Sacrificial System and the Grace of God Part 1 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Thu, 30 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6066 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 Even in the early church the grace of God was used as a license for licentiousness. Paul was accused of it (Rom. 3:8), and James warred against it (Jam. 2:14ff). The key to guarding against insulting the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) is understanding the death of the Messiah in light of the sacrificial system. Grace is extended freely to those who have repented of all known sin. There is no sacrifice for intentional sin, Old Testament or New. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 3a

 

DESCRIPTION

Even in the early church the grace of God was used as a license for licentiousness. Paul was accused of it (Rom. 3:8), and James warred against it (Jam. 2:14ff). The key to guarding against insulting the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) is understanding the death of the Messiah in light of the sacrificial system. Grace is extended freely to those who have repented of all known sin. There is no sacrifice for intentional sin, Old Testament or New.

NOTES

The content of this teaching’s notes are below with partial formatting. If you would like to see the notes with complete formatting,

Download “The Sacrificial System and the Grace of God” Notes.

The Sacrificial System and the Grace of God

SURVEY OF THE GRACE AND MERCY OF GOD

SURVEY OF THE GRACE AND MERCY OF GOD

A.             Old Testament

I will make all my goodness pass before you and will proclaim before you my name ‘The LORD.’ And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. (ESV Exodus 33:19)

The LORD passed before him and proclaimed, “The LORD, the LORD, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness,  7 keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and the children’s children, to the third and the fourth generation.” (ESV Exodus 34:6-7)

But the LORD was gracious to them and had compassion and showed concern for them because of his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. To this day he has been unwilling to destroy them or banish them from his presence. (NIV 2 Kings 13:23)

They refused to obey and were not mindful of the wonders that you performed among them, but they stiffened their neck and appointed a leader to return to their slavery in Egypt. But you are a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and did not forsake them. (ESV Nehemiah 9:17)

Hear, O LORD, when I cry aloud; be gracious to me and answer me!  8 You have said, “Seek my face.” My heart says to you, “Your face, LORD, do I seek.”  9 Hide not your face from me. Turn not your servant away in anger, O you who have been my help. (ESV Psalm 27:7-9)

The LORD is gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love.  9 The LORD is good to all, and his mercy is over all that he has made. (ESV Psalm 145:8-9)

Therefore the LORD waits to be gracious to you, and therefore he exalts himself to show mercy to you. For the LORD is a God of justice; blessed are all those who wait for him.  19 For a people shall dwell in Zion, in Jerusalem; you shall weep no more. He will surely be gracious to you at the sound of your cry. As soon as he hears it, he answers you. (ESV Isaiah 30:18-19)

Return to the LORD, your God, for he is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love; and he relents over disaster. (ESV Joel 2:13)

Hate evil, and love good, and establish justice in the gate; it may be that the LORD, the God of hosts, will be gracious to the remnant of Joseph. (ESV Amos 5:15)

O LORD, is not this what I said when I was yet in my country? That is why I made haste to flee to Tarshish; for I knew that you are a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and relenting from disaster. (ESV Jonah 4:2)

This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the LORD of hosts.  7 Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!’ (ESV Zechariah 4:6-7)

And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn. (ESV Zechariah 12:10)

When you offer blind animals in sacrifice, is that not evil? And when you offer those that are lame or sick, is that not evil? Present that to your governor; will he accept you or show you favor? says the LORD of hosts.  9 And now entreat the favor of God, that he may be gracious to us. With such a gift from your hand, will he show favor to any of you? (ESV Malachi 1:8-9)

B.             New Testament

Now, therefore, why are you putting God to the test by placing a yoke on the neck of the disciples that neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear?  11 But we believe that we will be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they will. (ESV Acts 15:10-11)

For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression.  16 That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring—not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who shares the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. (ESV Romans 4:15-16)

Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.  15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many… 20 Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (ESV Romans 5:14-21)

So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace6 But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace7 What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened. (ESV Romans 11:5-7)

You are severed from Christ, you who would be justified by the law; you have fallen away from grace5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we ourselves eagerly wait for the hope of righteousness. (ESV Galatians 5:4-5)

But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us,  5 even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ—by grace you have been saved—  6 and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,  7 so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.  8 For by grace you have been saved through faith. (ESV Ephesians 2:4-8)

But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared,  5 he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit,  6 whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,  7 so that being justified by his grace we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life. (ESV Titus 3:4-7) 

MERCY AND THE SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM

MERCY AND THE SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM

A.             Sin-bearing System

When Aaron has finished making atonement for the Most Holy Place, the Tent of Meeting and the altar, he shall bring forward the live goat.  21 He is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites—all their sins—and put them on the goat’s head. He shall send the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task.  22 The goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release it in the desert. (NIV Leviticus 16:20-22)

If any one of the house of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats blood and will cut him off from among his people.  11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it for you on the altar to make atonement for your souls, for it is the blood that makes atonement by the life. (ESV Leviticus 17:10-11)

B.             Prerequisite of Intentionality

If the whole congregation of Israel sins unintentionally and the thing is hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they do any one of the things that by the LORD’s commandments ought not to be done, and they realize their guilt14 when the sin which they have committed becomes known, the assembly shall offer a bull from the herd for a sin offering and bring it in front of the tent of meeting.  15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the LORD, and the bull shall be killed before the LORD. (ESV Leviticus 4:13-15)[1]

If a man or woman living among you in one of the towns the LORD gives you is found doing evil in the eyes of the LORD your God in violation of his covenant,  3 and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods, bowing down to them or to the sun or the moon or the stars of the sky,  4 and this has been brought to your attention, then you must investigate it thoroughly. If it is true and it has been proved that this detestable thing has been done in Israel,  5 take the man or woman who has done this evil deed to your city gate and stone that person to death6 On the testimony of two or three witnesses a man shall be put to death, but no one shall be put to death on the testimony of only one witness.  7 The hands of the witnesses must be the first in putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people. You must purge the evil from among you [cf. Deut. 13:5; 17:12; 19:19; 21:21; 22:21ff; 24:7]. (NIV Deuteronomy 17:2-7)

I am writing to you not to associate with anyone who bears the name of brother if he is guilty of sexual immorality or greed, or is an idolater, reviler, drunkard, or swindler—not even to eat with such a one.  12 For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Is it not those inside the church whom you are to judge?  13 God judges those outside. “Purge the evil person from among you.”6:8 But you yourselves wrong and defraud—even your own brothers!  9 Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: neither the sexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor men who practice homosexuality,  10 nor thieves, nor the greedy, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God. (ESV 1 Corinthians 5:11-6:10)



[1] “It should be emphasized here, as the workings of the sacrificial system are introduced to the reader, that the laws of the Torah did not permit Israelites to expiate intentional or premeditated offenses by means of sacrifice. There was no vicarious, ritual remedy—substitution of one’s property or wealth—for such violations, whether they were perpetrated against other individuals or against God Himself. In those cases, the law dealt directly with the offender, imposing real punishments and acting to prevent recurrences. The entire expiatory system ordained in the Torah must be understood in this light. Ritual expiation was restricted to situations where a reasonable doubt existed as to the willfulness of the offense. Even then, restitution was always required where loss or injury to another person had occurred. The mistaken notion that ritual worship could atone for criminality or intentional religious desecration was persistently attacked by the prophets of Israel, who considered it a major threat to the entire covenantal relationship between Israel and God.” (Baruch A. Levine, Leviticus, JPS Torah Commentary [Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989], 2-3)

THE DEATH OF THE MESSIAH AS SACRIFICE

THE DEATH OF THE MESSIAH AS SACRIFICE

A.             The Offering of God

Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows, yet we considered him stricken by God, smitten by him, and afflicted.  5 But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed.  6 We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all7 He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter10 Yet it was the LORD’s will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though the LORD makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of the LORD will prosper in his hand.  11 After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light of life and be satisfied; by his knowledge my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities. (NIV Isaiah 53:4-11)

And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest stands daily at his service, offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, waiting from that time until his enemies should be made a footstool for his feet. For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are being sanctified. (ESV Hebrews 10:10-14)

B.             The Sacrificial Blood (Mt. 26:28; Rom. 3:25; 5:9; 1 Cor. 10:16; 11:25ff; Eph. 1:7; 2:13; Col. 1:20; Heb. 9:12ff; 10:19, 29; 13:12, 20; 1 Jn. 1:7; 1 Pet. 1:2, 19; Rev. 1:5; 5:9; 7:14; 12:11)

The blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who are ceremonially unclean sanctify them so that they are outwardly clean14 How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!  15 For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (NIV Hebrews 9:13-15)

Since you call on a Father who judges each man’s work impartially, live your lives as strangers here in reverent fear.  18 For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers,  19 but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. (NIV 1 Peter 1:17-19)

THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS

THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS

I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.  16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God18 I tell you I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes… 20 This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you [“for the forgiveness of sins,” Mt. 26:28]. (NIV Luke 22:15-20)

A.             Common Sacrificial Assumptions

Therefore, my brothers, I want you to know that through Jesus the forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you.  39 Through him everyone who believes is justified from everything you could not be justified from by the law of Moses. (NIV Acts 13:38-39)

Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins26 But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.  27 And just as it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment,  28 so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him. (ESV Hebrews 9:22-28)

B.             The Reconciliatory End of Forgiveness

1-Depravity-of-Man-Holiness-of-GodGod was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him,  20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.  21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior.  22 But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation. (NIV Colossians 1:19-22)

C.              The Propitiative Nature of Forgiveness

But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it-  22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction:  23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,  24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,  25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. (ESV Rom. 3:21-25)

D.             The Justificative Nature of Forgiveness

4-Justicative-Nature-of-ForgivenessTherefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,  2 through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God… 6 You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly7 Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die.  8 But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us9 Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through him! (NIV Romans 5:1-9)

E.              The Redemptive Nature of Forgiveness

For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love  5 he predestined us to be adopted as his sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will–  6 to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.  7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace  8 that he lavished on us with all wisdom and understanding. (NIV Ephesians 1:4-8) 

SACRIFICIAL ERRORS

SACRIFICIAL ERRORS

A.             Presumption of the Sacrifice

For if we go on sinning deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins27 but a fearful expectation of judgment, and a fury of fire that will consume the adversaries.  28 Anyone who has set aside the law of Moses dies without mercy on the evidence of two or three witnesses.  29 How much worse punishment, do you think, will be deserved by the one who has spurned the Son of God, and has profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has outraged the Spirit of grace? (ESV Hebrews 10:26-29)

It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and of a kind that is not tolerated even among pagans, for a man has his father’s wife.  2 And you are arrogant! Ought you not rather to mourn? Let him who has done this be removed from among you.  3 For though absent in body, I am present in spirit; and as if present, I have already pronounced judgment on the one who did such a thing.  4 When you are assembled in the name of the Lord Jesus and my spirit is present, with the power of our Lord Jesus,  5 you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord. (ESV 1 Corinthians 5:1-5)

Someone might argue, “If my falsehood enhances God’s truthfulness and so increases his glory, why am I still condemned as a sinner?”  8 Why not say—as we are being slanderously reported as saying and as some claim that we say—”Let us do evil that good may result”? Their condemnation is deserved. (NIV Romans 3:7-8)

B.             Rejection of the Sacrifice

3-Righteousness-DefinedFor before certain men came from James, he was eating with the Gentiles; but when they came he drew back and separated himself, fearing the circumcision party [cf. Acts 11:2; Gal. 2:12; Eph. 2:11; Col. 4:11; Tit. 1:10].  13 And the rest of the Jews acted hypocritically along with him, so that even Barnabas was led astray by their hypocrisy.  14 But when I saw that their conduct was not in step with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all, “If you, though a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you force the Gentiles to live like Jews?”  15 We ourselves are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners;  16 yet we know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified17 But if, in our endeavor to be justified in Christ, we too were found to be sinners, is Christ then a servant of sin? Certainly not!  18 For if I rebuild what I tore down, I prove myself to be a transgressor.  19 For through the law I died to the law, so that I might live to God.  20 I have been crucified with Christ. It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.  21 I do not nullify the grace of God, for if justification were through the law, then Christ died for no purpose. (ESV Galatians 2:12-21)

2-Jewish-Hope-Hellenistic-HopeLook out for the dogs, look out for the evildoers, look out for those who mutilate the flesh.  3 For we are the real circumcision, who worship by the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh–  4 though I myself have reason for confidence in the flesh also. If anyone else thinks he has reason for confidence in the flesh, I have more:  5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee;  6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness, under the law blameless.  7 But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ.  8 Indeed, I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things and count them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ  9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith–  10 that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death,  11 that by any means possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead. 12 Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect, but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own.  13 Brothers, I do not consider that I have made it my own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead14 I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus.  15 Let those of us who are mature think this way, and if in anything you think otherwise, God will reveal that also to you.  16 Only let us hold true to what we have attained.  17 Brothers, join in imitating me, and keep your eyes on those who walk according to the example you have in us.  18 For many, of whom I have often told you and now tell you even with tears, walk as enemies of the cross of Christ19 Their end is destruction, their god is their belly [“appetite,” NASB/NLT; cf. Rom. 16:18], and they glory in their shame, with minds set on earthly things. (ESV Philippians 3:2-19)

C.              Summary of the Mercy and Grace of God

For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray, slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, hated by others and hating one another.  4 But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared,  5 he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit,  6 whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,  7 so that being justified by his grace we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.  8 The saying is trustworthy, and I want you to insist on these things, so that those who have believed in God may be careful to devote themselves to good works. (ESV Titus 3:3-8)

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LAKOG Class 3a Even in the early church the grace of God was used as a license for licentiousness. Paul was accused of it (Rom. 3:8), and James warred against it (Jam. 2:14ff). The key to guarding against insulting the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) is understanding the death of the Messiah in light of the sacrificial system. Grace is extended freely to those who have repented of all known sin. There is no sacrifice for intentional sin, Old Testament or New. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6066-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6066
The Sacrificial System and the Grace of God Part 2 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Thu, 30 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6502 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 Even in the early church the grace of God was used as a license for licentiousness. Paul was accused of it (Rom. 3:8), and James warred against it (Jam. 2:14ff). The key to guarding against insulting the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) is understanding the death of the Messiah in light of the sacrificial system. Grace is extended freely to those who have repented of all known sin. There is no sacrifice for intentional sin, Old Testament or New. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 3b

 

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Even in the early church the grace of God was used as a license for licentiousness. Paul was accused of it (Rom. 3:8), and James warred against it (Jam. 2:14ff). The key to guarding against insulting the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) is understanding the death of the Messiah in light of the sacrificial system. Grace is extended freely to those who have repented of all known sin. There is no sacrifice for intentional sin, Old Testament or New.

NOTES

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Because this is part 2 of these notes, John begins at the subtitle Sacrificial Errors.

The Sacrificial System and the Grace of God

SURVEY OF THE GRACE AND MERCY OF GOD

SURVEY OF THE GRACE AND MERCY OF GOD

A.             Old Testament

I will make all my goodness pass before you and will proclaim before you my name ‘The LORD.’ And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. (ESV Exodus 33:19)

The LORD passed before him and proclaimed, “The LORD, the LORD, a God merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love and faithfulness,  7 keeping steadfast love for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and the children’s children, to the third and the fourth generation.” (ESV Exodus 34:6-7)

But the LORD was gracious to them and had compassion and showed concern for them because of his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. To this day he has been unwilling to destroy them or banish them from his presence. (NIV 2 Kings 13:23)

They refused to obey and were not mindful of the wonders that you performed among them, but they stiffened their neck and appointed a leader to return to their slavery in Egypt. But you are a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and did not forsake them. (ESV Nehemiah 9:17)

Hear, O LORD, when I cry aloud; be gracious to me and answer me!  8 You have said, “Seek my face.” My heart says to you, “Your face, LORD, do I seek.”  9 Hide not your face from me. Turn not your servant away in anger, O you who have been my help. (ESV Psalm 27:7-9)

The LORD is gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love.  9 The LORD is good to all, and his mercy is over all that he has made. (ESV Psalm 145:8-9)

Therefore the LORD waits to be gracious to you, and therefore he exalts himself to show mercy to you. For the LORD is a God of justice; blessed are all those who wait for him.  19 For a people shall dwell in Zion, in Jerusalem; you shall weep no more. He will surely be gracious to you at the sound of your cry. As soon as he hears it, he answers you. (ESV Isaiah 30:18-19)

Return to the LORD, your God, for he is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love; and he relents over disaster. (ESV Joel 2:13)

Hate evil, and love good, and establish justice in the gate; it may be that the LORD, the God of hosts, will be gracious to the remnant of Joseph. (ESV Amos 5:15)

O LORD, is not this what I said when I was yet in my country? That is why I made haste to flee to Tarshish; for I knew that you are a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and relenting from disaster. (ESV Jonah 4:2)

This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: Not by might, nor by power, but by my Spirit, says the LORD of hosts.  7 Who are you, O great mountain? Before Zerubbabel you shall become a plain. And he shall bring forward the top stone amid shouts of ‘Grace, grace to it!’ (ESV Zechariah 4:6-7)

And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn. (ESV Zechariah 12:10)

When you offer blind animals in sacrifice, is that not evil? And when you offer those that are lame or sick, is that not evil? Present that to your governor; will he accept you or show you favor? says the LORD of hosts.  9 And now entreat the favor of God, that he may be gracious to us. With such a gift from your hand, will he show favor to any of you? (ESV Malachi 1:8-9)

B.             New Testament

Now, therefore, why are you putting God to the test by placing a yoke on the neck of the disciples that neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear?  11 But we believe that we will be saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they will. (ESV Acts 15:10-11)

For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression.  16 That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring—not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who shares the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all. (ESV Romans 4:15-16)

Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.  15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift by the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many… 20 Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. (ESV Romans 5:14-21)

So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace6 But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace7 What then? Israel failed to obtain what it was seeking. The elect obtained it, but the rest were hardened. (ESV Romans 11:5-7)

You are severed from Christ, you who would be justified by the law; you have fallen away from grace5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we ourselves eagerly wait for the hope of righteousness. (ESV Galatians 5:4-5)

But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us,  5 even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ—by grace you have been saved—  6 and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus,  7 so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.  8 For by grace you have been saved through faith. (ESV Ephesians 2:4-8)

But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared,  5 he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit,  6 whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,  7 so that being justified by his grace we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life. (ESV Titus 3:4-7) 

MERCY AND THE SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM

MERCY AND THE SACRIFICIAL SYSTEM

A.             Sin-bearing System

When Aaron has finished making atonement for the Most Holy Place, the Tent of Meeting and the altar, he shall bring forward the live goat.  21 He is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites—all their sins—and put them on the goat’s head. He shall send the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task.  22 The goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release it in the desert. (NIV Leviticus 16:20-22)

If any one of the house of Israel or of the strangers who sojourn among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that person who eats blood and will cut him off from among his people.  11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it for you on the altar to make atonement for your souls, for it is the blood that makes atonement by the life. (ESV Leviticus 17:10-11)

B.             Prerequisite of Intentionality

If the whole congregation of Israel sins unintentionally and the thing is hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they do any one of the things that by the LORD’s commandments ought not to be done, and they realize their guilt14 when the sin which they have committed becomes known, the assembly shall offer a bull from the herd for a sin offering and bring it in front of the tent of meeting.  15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before the LORD, and the bull shall be killed before the LORD. (ESV Leviticus 4:13-15)[1]

If a man or woman living among you in one of the towns the LORD gives you is found doing evil in the eyes of the LORD your God in violation of his covenant,  3 and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods, bowing down to them or to the sun or the moon or the stars of the sky,  4 and this has been brought to your attention, then you must investigate it thoroughly. If it is true and it has been proved that this detestable thing has been done in Israel,  5 take the man or woman who has done this evil deed to your city gate and stone that person to death6 On the testimony of two or three witnesses a man shall be put to death, but no one shall be put to death on the testimony of only one witness.  7 The hands of the witnesses must be the first in putting him to death, and then the hands of all the people. You must purge the evil from among you [cf. Deut. 13:5; 17:12; 19:19; 21:21; 22:21ff; 24:7]. (NIV Deuteronomy 17:2-7)

I am writing to you not to associate with anyone who bears the name of brother if he is guilty of sexual immorality or greed, or is an idolater, reviler, drunkard, or swindler—not even to eat with such a one.  12 For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Is it not those inside the church whom you are to judge?  13 God judges those outside. “Purge the evil person from among you.”6:8 But you yourselves wrong and defraud—even your own brothers!  9 Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: neither the sexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor men who practice homosexuality,  10 nor thieves, nor the greedy, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God. (ESV 1 Corinthians 5:11-6:10)



[1] “It should be emphasized here, as the workings of the sacrificial system are introduced to the reader, that the laws of the Torah did not permit Israelites to expiate intentional or premeditated offenses by means of sacrifice. There was no vicarious, ritual remedy—substitution of one’s property or wealth—for such violations, whether they were perpetrated against other individuals or against God Himself. In those cases, the law dealt directly with the offender, imposing real punishments and acting to prevent recurrences. The entire expiatory system ordained in the Torah must be understood in this light. Ritual expiation was restricted to situations where a reasonable doubt existed as to the willfulness of the offense. Even then, restitution was always required where loss or injury to another person had occurred. The mistaken notion that ritual worship could atone for criminality or intentional religious desecration was persistently attacked by the prophets of Israel, who considered it a major threat to the entire covenantal relationship between Israel and God.” (Baruch A. Levine, Leviticus, JPS Torah Commentary [Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989], 2-3)

THE DEATH OF THE MESSIAH AS SACRIFICE

THE DEATH OF THE MESSIAH AS SACRIFICE

A.             The Offering of God

Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows, yet we considered him stricken by God, smitten by him, and afflicted.  5 But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed.  6 We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all7 He was oppressed and afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; he was led like a lamb to the slaughter10 Yet it was the LORD’s will to crush him and cause him to suffer, and though the LORD makes his life a guilt offering, he will see his offspring and prolong his days, and the will of the LORD will prosper in his hand.  11 After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light of life and be satisfied; by his knowledge my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities. (NIV Isaiah 53:4-11)

And by that will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. And every priest stands daily at his service, offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, waiting from that time until his enemies should be made a footstool for his feet. For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are being sanctified. (ESV Hebrews 10:10-14)

B.             The Sacrificial Blood (Mt. 26:28; Rom. 3:25; 5:9; 1 Cor. 10:16; 11:25ff; Eph. 1:7; 2:13; Col. 1:20; Heb. 9:12ff; 10:19, 29; 13:12, 20; 1 Jn. 1:7; 1 Pet. 1:2, 19; Rev. 1:5; 5:9; 7:14; 12:11)

The blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer sprinkled on those who are ceremonially unclean sanctify them so that they are outwardly clean14 How much more, then, will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death, so that we may serve the living God!  15 For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance—now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant. (NIV Hebrews 9:13-15)

Since you call on a Father who judges each man’s work impartially, live your lives as strangers here in reverent fear.  18 For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers,  19 but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. (NIV 1 Peter 1:17-19)

THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS

THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS

I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.  16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds fulfillment in the kingdom of God18 I tell you I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes… 20 This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you [“for the forgiveness of sins,” Mt. 26:28]. (NIV Luke 22:15-20)

A.             Common Sacrificial Assumptions

Therefore, my brothers, I want you to know that through Jesus the forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you.  39 Through him everyone who believes is justified from everything you could not be justified from by the law of Moses. (NIV Acts 13:38-39)

Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins26 But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.  27 And just as it is appointed for man to die once, and after that comes judgment,  28 so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him. (ESV Hebrews 9:22-28)

B.             The Reconciliatory End of Forgiveness

1-Depravity-of-Man-Holiness-of-GodGod was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him,  20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross.  21 Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior.  22 But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation. (NIV Colossians 1:19-22)

C.              The Propitiative Nature of Forgiveness

But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it-  22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction:  23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,  24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,  25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. (ESV Rom. 3:21-25)

D.             The Justificative Nature of Forgiveness

4-Justicative-Nature-of-ForgivenessTherefore, since we have been justified through faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ,  2 through whom we have gained access by faith into this grace in which we now stand. And we rejoice in the hope of the glory of God… 6 You see, at just the right time, when we were still powerless, Christ died for the ungodly7 Very rarely will anyone die for a righteous man, though for a good man someone might possibly dare to die.  8 But God demonstrates his own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us9 Since we have now been justified by his blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through him! (NIV Romans 5:1-9)

E.              The Redemptive Nature of Forgiveness

For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love  5 he predestined us to be adopted as his sons through Jesus Christ, in accordance with his pleasure and will–  6 to the praise of his glorious grace, which he has freely given us in the One he loves.  7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace  8 that he lavished on us with all wisdom and understanding. (NIV Ephesians 1:4-8) 

SACRIFICIAL ERRORS

SACRIFICIAL ERRORS

A.             Presumption of the Sacrifice

For if we go on sinning deliberately after receiving the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins27 but a fearful expectation of judgment, and a fury of fire that will consume the adversaries.  28 Anyone who has set aside the law of Moses dies without mercy on the evidence of two or three witnesses.  29 How much worse punishment, do you think, will be deserved by the one who has spurned the Son of God, and has profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has outraged the Spirit of grace? (ESV Hebrews 10:26-29)

It is actually reported that there is sexual immorality among you, and of a kind that is not tolerated even among pagans, for a man has his father’s wife.  2 And you are arrogant! Ought you not rather to mourn? Let him who has done this be removed from among you.  3 For though absent in body, I am present in spirit; and as if present, I have already pronounced judgment on the one who did such a thing.  4 When you are assembled in the name of the Lord Jesus and my spirit is present, with the power of our Lord Jesus,  5 you are to deliver this man to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord. (ESV 1 Corinthians 5:1-5)

Someone might argue, “If my falsehood enhances God’s truthfulness and so increases his glory, why am I still condemned as a sinner?”  8 Why not say—as we are being slanderously reported as saying and as some claim that we say—”Let us do evil that good may result”? Their condemnation is deserved. (NIV Romans 3:7-8)

B.             Rejection of the Sacrifice

3-Righteousness-DefinedFor before certain men came from James, he was eating with the Gentiles; but when they came he drew back and separated himself, fearing the circumcision party [cf. Acts 11:2; Gal. 2:12; Eph. 2:11; Col. 4:11; Tit. 1:10].  13 And the rest of the Jews acted hypocritically along with him, so that even Barnabas was led astray by their hypocrisy.  14 But when I saw that their conduct was not in step with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all, “If you, though a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you force the Gentiles to live like Jews?”  15 We ourselves are Jews by birth and not Gentile sinners;  16 yet we know that a person is not justified by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified17 But if, in our endeavor to be justified in Christ, we too were found to be sinners, is Christ then a servant of sin? Certainly not!  18 For if I rebuild what I tore down, I prove myself to be a transgressor.  19 For through the law I died to the law, so that I might live to God.  20 I have been crucified with Christ. It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me. And the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.  21 I do not nullify the grace of God, for if justification were through the law, then Christ died for no purpose. (ESV Galatians 2:12-21)

2-Jewish-Hope-Hellenistic-HopeLook out for the dogs, look out for the evildoers, look out for those who mutilate the flesh.  3 For we are the real circumcision, who worship by the Spirit of God and glory in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh–  4 though I myself have reason for confidence in the flesh also. If anyone else thinks he has reason for confidence in the flesh, I have more:  5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee;  6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness, under the law blameless.  7 But whatever gain I had, I counted as loss for the sake of Christ.  8 Indeed, I count everything as loss because of the surpassing worth of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things and count them as rubbish, in order that I may gain Christ  9 and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God that depends on faith–  10 that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death,  11 that by any means possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead. 12 Not that I have already obtained this or am already perfect, but I press on to make it my own, because Christ Jesus has made me his own.  13 Brothers, I do not consider that I have made it my own. But one thing I do: forgetting what lies behind and straining forward to what lies ahead14 I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus.  15 Let those of us who are mature think this way, and if in anything you think otherwise, God will reveal that also to you.  16 Only let us hold true to what we have attained.  17 Brothers, join in imitating me, and keep your eyes on those who walk according to the example you have in us.  18 For many, of whom I have often told you and now tell you even with tears, walk as enemies of the cross of Christ19 Their end is destruction, their god is their belly [“appetite,” NASB/NLT; cf. Rom. 16:18], and they glory in their shame, with minds set on earthly things. (ESV Philippians 3:2-19)

C.              Summary of the Mercy and Grace of God

For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray, slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, hated by others and hating one another.  4 But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared,  5 he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit,  6 whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior,  7 so that being justified by his grace we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.  8 The saying is trustworthy, and I want you to insist on these things, so that those who have believed in God may be careful to devote themselves to good works. (ESV Titus 3:3-8)

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LAKOG Class 3b Even in the early church the grace of God was used as a license for licentiousness. Paul was accused of it (Rom. 3:8), and James warred against it (Jam. 2:14ff). The key to guarding against insulting the Spirit of grace (Heb. 10:29) is understanding the death of the Messiah in light of the sacrificial system. Grace is extended freely to those who have repented of all known sin. There is no sacrifice for intentional sin, Old Testament or New. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6502-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6502
The Sacrificial System And The Grace Of God Question And Answer https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Thu, 30 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6507 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 3's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 3 Q&A

 

DESCRIPTION

In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 3’s teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them.

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LAKOG Class 3 Q&A In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 3's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/sacrificial-system-grace-of-god-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6507-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6507
Evangelism Among Jews And Gentiles Part 1 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Thu, 30 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6075 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 Though Jew and Gentile alike are saved upon the same basis of faith in the Cross, the early church did not approach evangelism and discipleship among Jew and Gentile homogenously. There was a clear order to evangelism (Acts 13:46ff; 18:4ff; Rom. 1:16), and there was a clear distinction in discipleship (Acts 15:19ff; 21:20-25). It would serve the Church well to see these distinctions, so that modern evangelists don’t unnecessarily offend both Jew and Gentile. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 4a

 

DESCRIPTION

Though Jew and Gentile alike are saved upon the same basis of faith in the Cross, the early church did not approach evangelism and discipleship among Jew and Gentile homogenously. There was a clear order to evangelism (Acts 13:46ff; 18:4ff; Rom. 1:16), and there was a clear distinction in discipleship (Acts 15:19ff; 21:20-25). It would serve the Church well to see these distinctions, so that modern evangelists don’t unnecessarily offend both Jew and Gentile.

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Evangelism Among Jews And Gentiles

THE INCLUSION OF JEWS AND GENTILES

THE INCLUSION OF JEWS AND GENTILES

Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him. (ESV Genesis 18:18) You are to undergo circumcision, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and you.  12 For the generations to come every male among you who is eight days old must be circumcised, including those born in your household or bought with money from a foreigner—those who are not your offspring13 Whether born in your household or bought with your money, they must be circumcised. My covenant in your flesh is to be an everlasting covenant.  14 Any uncircumcised male, who has not been circumcised in the flesh, will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant. (NIV Genesis 17:11-14) A.             Gentile Inclusion Before Acts 10 1-Gentile-Inclusion-Before-Acts-10This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner shall eat of it,  44 but every slave that is bought for money may eat of it after you have circumcised him47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.  48 If a stranger (Gk. prosēlutos, lxx) shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.  49 There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger (Gk. prosēlutos, lxx) who sojourns among you. (ESV Exodus 12:47-49) In every province and in every city, wherever the edict of the king went, there was joy and gladness among the Jews, with feasting and celebrating. And many people of other nationalities [“were circumcised and” lxx] became Jews because fear of the Jews had seized them. (NIV Esther 8:17)[1] Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves. (ESV Matthew 23:15) B.             Gentile Inclusion After Acts 10 2-Gentile-Inclusion-After-Acts-10“We have come from Cornelius the centurion. He is a righteous and God-fearing man, who is respected by all the Jewish people.” … 44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit came on all who heard the message.  45 The circumcised believers who had come with Peter were astonished that the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out even on the Gentiles. (NIV Acts 10:22-45)[2] The apostles and the brothers throughout Judea heard that the Gentiles also had received the word of God.  2 So when Peter went up to Jerusalem, the circumcised believers criticized him  3 and said, “You went into the house of uncircumcised men and ate with them.”  4 Peter began and explained everything to them precisely as it had happened… 17 “So if God gave them the same gift as he gave us, who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I to think that I could oppose God?”  18 When they heard this, they had no further objections and praised God, saying, “So then, God has granted even the Gentiles repentance unto life.” (NIV Acts 11:1-18) Some men came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the brothers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.”  2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them… 5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, “The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to obey the law of Moses.”  6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question.  7 After much discussion, Peter got up and addressed them: “Brothers, you know that some time ago God made a choice among you that the Gentiles might hear from my lips the message of the gospel and believe.  8 God, who knows the heart, showed that he accepted them by giving the Holy Spirit to them, just as he did to us.  9 He made no distinction between us and them, for he purified their hearts by faith.  10 Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear?  11 No! We believe it is through the grace of our Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are.” … 13 When they finished, James spoke up: “Brothers, listen to me.  14 Simon has described to us how God at first showed his concern by taking from the Gentiles a people for himself.  15 The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written:  16 “‘After this I will return and rebuild David’s fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it,  17 that the remnant of men may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things’  18 that have been known for ages.  19 “It is my judgment, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God.  20 Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood.  21 For Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath.” (NIV Acts 15:1-21)[3] Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra. A disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek.  2 He was well spoken of by the brothers at Lystra and Iconium.  3 Paul wanted Timothy to accompany him, and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. (ESV Acts 16:1-3) 3-Universal-Kingdom-Jew-GentileWhen we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly.  18 On the following day Paul went in with us to James, and all the elders were present.  19 After greeting them, he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through his ministry.  20 And when they heard it, they glorified God. And they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed. They are all zealous for the law21 and they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or walk according to our customs.  22 What then is to be done? They will certainly hear that you have come.  23 Do therefore what we tell you. We have four men who are under a vow;  24 take these men and purify yourself along with them and pay their expenses, so that they may shave their heads. Thus all will know that there is nothing in what they have been told about you, but that you yourself also live in observance of the law.  25 But as for the Gentiles who have believed, we have sent a letter with our judgment that they should abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from what has been strangled, and from sexual immorality.” (ESV Acts 21:17-25) C.              Different Stewardships, Same Basis of Faith For we hold that one is justified by faith apart from works of the law.  29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also,  30 since God is one. He will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith.  31 Do we then overthrow the law by this faith? By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law. (ESV Romans 3:28-31) Look: I, Paul, say to you that if you accept circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you.  3 I testify again to every man who accepts circumcision that he is obligated to keep the whole law.  4 You are severed from Christ, you who would be justified by the law; you have fallen away from grace.  5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we ourselves eagerly wait for the hope of righteousness.  6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for anything, but only faith working through love. (ESV Galatians 5:2-6) I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! For I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin.  2 God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew… 5 So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace.  6 But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace. (ESV Romans 11:1-6) Nevertheless, each one should retain the place in life that the Lord assigned to him and to which God has called him. This is the rule I lay down in all the churches.  18 Was a man already circumcised when he was called? He should not become uncircumcised. Was a man uncircumcised when he was called? He should not be circumcised.  19 Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing. Keeping God’s commands is what counts.  20 Each one should remain in the situation which he was in when God called him. (NIV 1 Corinthians 7:17-20) D.             Consideration for Different Callings As for the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions.  2 One person believes he may eat anything, while the weak person eats only vegetables.  3 Let not the one who eats despise the one who abstains, and let not the one who abstains pass judgment on the one who eats, for God has welcomed him.  4 Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand.  5 One person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind.  6 The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God.  7 For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself… 13 Therefore let us not pass judgment on one another any longer, but rather decide never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother.  14 I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean in itself, but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean.  15 For if your brother is grieved by what you eat, you are no longer walking in love. By what you eat, do not destroy the one for whom Christ died… 19 So then let us pursue what makes for peace and for mutual upbuilding20 Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. Everything is indeed clean, but it is wrong for anyone to make another stumble by what he eats.  21 It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble22 The faith that you have, keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who has no reason to pass judgment on himself for what he approves.  23 But whoever has doubts is condemned if he eats, because the eating is not from faith. For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin. (ESV Romans 14:1-23)



[1] “The rite [for the reception of proselytes] consists of three parts: circumcision, baptism, and the offering of a sacrifice in the temple… The non-Jew received thus into Judaism was regarded after conversion ‘in every respect as a Jew,’ b. Jeb., 47b. This means in the first instance that like every Jew he is under obligation to keep the whole Jewish Law. In keeping is the saying of Paul in Gl. 5:3: μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ περιτεμνομένῳ ὅτι ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον ποιῆσαι [“I testify again to every man who accepts circumcision that he is obligated to keep the whole law”].” (K. G. Kuhn, “προσήλυτος,”TDNT, 6:738-39)
[2] “The attitude of the primitive Palestinian community to σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν [“God-fearer”] was based on that of Palestinian Judaism. The only non-Jew to have a part in the salvation effected in Jesus was the one who had first become a member of the Jewish people by the acceptance of circumcision and of the obligation to keep the whole Jewish Torah. Otherwise the non-Jew remained a Gentile and as such he would fall victim to God’s wrath in the Last Judgment.” (K. G. Kuhn, “προσήλυτος,”TDNT, 6:743)
[3] “But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, which they ought to let depart free and unrestrained, burying the blood, as it were, in the body. For it ought to have been sufficient for them to enjoy the flesh by itself, without touching any of those parts which have an connection with the soul or life. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the fat. The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.” (Philo of Alexandria, The Special Laws, 4.122-123; The Works of Philo [Hendrickson, 1995], 628)

EVANGELISTIC DELINEATION BETWEEN JEW AND GENTILE

EVANGELISTIC DELINEATION BETWEEN JEW AND GENTILE

A.             Evangelistic Calling On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been entrusted with the gospel to the circumcised  8 (for he who worked through Peter for his apostolic ministry to the circumcised worked also through me for mine to the Gentiles),  9 and when James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given to me, they gave the right hand of fellowship to Barnabas and me, that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. (ESV Galatians 2:7-9) To the Jews I became as a Jew, so that I might win Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law though not being myself under the Law, so that I might win those who are under the Law;  21 to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, so that I might win those who are without law.  22 To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, so that I may by all means save some. (NASB 1 Corinthians 9:20-22) B.             Evangelistic Order For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.  17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.” (ESV Romans 1:16-17) And after the meeting of the synagogue broke up, many Jews and devout converts to Judaism followed Paul and Barnabas, who, as they spoke with them, urged them to continue in the grace of God.  44 The next Sabbath almost the whole city gathered to hear the word of the Lord.  45 But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began to contradict what was spoken by Paul, reviling him.  46 And Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, saying, “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken first to you. Since you thrust it aside and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we are turning to the Gentiles47 For so the Lord has commanded us, saying, “‘ I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the ends of the earth.'”  48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord, and as many as were appointed to eternal life believed. (ESV Acts 13:43-48) Every Sabbath he reasoned in the synagogue… testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ.  6 But when the Jews opposed Paul and became abusive, he shook out his clothes in protest and said to them, “Your blood be on your own heads! I am clear of my responsibility. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.” (NIV Acts 18:4-6) C.              No Distinction in Basis or Quality of Salvation For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved.  11 For the Scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.”  12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him. (ESV Romans 10:10-12) You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus,  27 for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.  28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.  29 If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise. (NIV Galatians 3:26-29) Therefore remember that at one time you Gentiles in the flesh… were at that time separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.  13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ14 For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one… that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two…  18 For through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father.  19 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God. (ESV Ephesians 2:11-19) D.             Distinction in Role of Inheritance This is what Isaiah son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem2 In the last days the mountain of the LORD’s temple will be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and all nations will stream to it.  3 Many peoples will come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob. He will teach us his ways, so that we may walk in his paths.” The law will go out from Zion, the word of the LORD from Jerusalem4 He will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. (NIV Isaiah 2:1-4) I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart.  3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises.  5 To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen. (ESV Romans 9:2-5) So I ask, did they stumble in order that they might fall? By no means! Rather through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous12 Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!  13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry  14 in order somehow to make my fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them… 28 As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.  29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. (ESV Romans 11:11-29)

OBSTACLES OF JEWISH EVANGELISM

OBSTACLES OF JEWISH EVANGELISM

A.             The Offense of the Cross and Divine Atonement But if I, brothers, still preach circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been removed.  12 I wish those who unsettle you would emasculate themselves! (ESV Galatians 5:11-12) For there is no distinction:  23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,  24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,  25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. (ESV Romans 3:22-25) Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved.  2 I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge.  3 For, being ignorant of the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God’s righteousness. (ESV Romans 10:1-3) B.             The Offense of Realized Eschatology What is it, after all, that marks the difference between Christians and Jews? … Jews believe in the eventual fulfillment of an elusive dream of a perfect world. Christians believe that the world has already been saved by the crucifixion and resurrection of the Messiah Jesus. The difference between the belief in future redemption and realized redemption is the chasm that separates Jewish from Christian thinking.[1] The Jew is profoundly aware of the unredeemed character of the world, and he perceives and recognizes no enclave of redemption in the midst of its unredeemedness. The concept of the redeemed soul in the midst of an unredeemed world is alien to the Jew, profoundly alien, inaccessible from the primal ground of his existence. This is the innermost reason for Israel’s rejection of Jesus, not a merely external, merely national conception of messianism. In Jewish eyes, redemption means redemption from all evil. Evil of body and soul, evil in creation and civilization. So when we say redemption, we mean the whole of redemption. Between creation and redemption we know only one caesura: the revelation of God’s will.[2] The church rests on its faith that the Christ has come, and that this is the redemption which God has bestowed on mankind. We, Israel, are not able to believe this… We know more deeply, more truly, that world history has not been turned upside down to its very foundations—that the world is not yet redeemed. We sense its unredeemedness. The church can, or indeed must, understand this sense of ours as the awareness that we are not redeemed. But we know that that is not it. The redemption of the world is for us indivisibly one with the perfecting of creation, with the establishment of the unity which nothing more prevents, the unity which is no longer controverted, and which is realized in all the protean variety of the world. Redemption is one with the kingdom of God in its fulfilment. An anticipation of any single part of the completed redemption of the world—for example the redemption beforehand of the soul—is something we cannot grasp, although even for us in our mortal hours redeeming and redemption are heralded. But we can perceive no caesura in history. We are aware of no centre in history—only its goal, the goal of the way taken by the God who does not linger on his way.[3]



[1] David S. Ariel, What Do Jews Believe? The Spiritual Foundations of Judaism (New York: Schocken Books, 1995), 232.
[2] Schalom Ben-Chorin, Die Antwort des Jona (Hamburg, 1956), 99; quoted in Jürgen Moltmann, The Way of Jesus Christ: Christology in Messianic Dimensions, trans. Margaret Kohl (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1993), 29.
[3] Martin Buber, Der Jude und sein Judentum (Cologne, 1963), 562; quoted in Moltmann, The Way of Jesus Christ, 28-29.

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LAKOG Class 4a Though Jew and Gentile alike are saved upon the same basis of faith in the Cross, the early church did not approach evangelism and discipleship among Jew and Gentile homogenously. There was a clear order to evangelism (Acts 13:46ff; 18:4ff; Rom. 1:16), and there was a clear distinction in discipleship (Acts 15:19ff; 21:20-25). It would serve the Church well to see these distinctions, so that modern evangelists don’t unnecessarily offend both Jew and Gentile. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6075-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6075
Evangelism Among Jews And Gentiles Part 2 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Thu, 30 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6531 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/#respond https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/feed/ 0 Though Jew and Gentile alike are saved upon the same basis of faith in the Cross, the early church did not approach evangelism and discipleship among Jew and Gentile homogenously. There was a clear order to evangelism (Acts 13:46ff; 18:4ff; Rom. 1:16), and there was a clear distinction in discipleship (Acts 15:19ff; 21:20-25). It would serve the Church well to see these distinctions, so that modern evangelists don’t unnecessarily offend both Jew and Gentile. Living In Anticipation Of The Kingdom of God – 4b

 

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Though Jew and Gentile alike are saved upon the same basis of faith in the Cross, the early church did not approach evangelism and discipleship among Jew and Gentile homogenously. There was a clear order to evangelism (Acts 13:46ff; 18:4ff; Rom. 1:16), and there was a clear distinction in discipleship (Acts 15:19ff; 21:20-25). It would serve the Church well to see these distinctions, so that modern evangelists don’t unnecessarily offend both Jew and Gentile.

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Because this is part 2 of these notes, John begins at the subtitle “Evangelistic Delineation Between Jew and Gentile.

Evangelism Among Jews And Gentiles

THE INCLUSION OF JEWS AND GENTILES

THE INCLUSION OF JEWS AND GENTILES

Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him. (ESV Genesis 18:18)

You are to undergo circumcision, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and you.  12 For the generations to come every male among you who is eight days old must be circumcised, including those born in your household or bought with money from a foreigner—those who are not your offspring13 Whether born in your household or bought with your money, they must be circumcised. My covenant in your flesh is to be an everlasting covenant.  14 Any uncircumcised male, who has not been circumcised in the flesh, will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant. (NIV Genesis 17:11-14)

A.             Gentile Inclusion Before Acts 10

1-Gentile-Inclusion-Before-Acts-10This is the statute of the Passover: no foreigner shall eat of it,  44 but every slave that is bought for money may eat of it after you have circumcised him47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.  48 If a stranger (Gk. prosēlutos, lxx) shall sojourn with you and would keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised. Then he may come near and keep it; he shall be as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it.  49 There shall be one law for the native and for the stranger (Gk. prosēlutos, lxx) who sojourns among you. (ESV Exodus 12:47-49)

In every province and in every city, wherever the edict of the king went, there was joy and gladness among the Jews, with feasting and celebrating. And many people of other nationalities [“were circumcised and” lxx] became Jews because fear of the Jews had seized them. (NIV Esther 8:17)[1]

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves. (ESV Matthew 23:15)

B.             Gentile Inclusion After Acts 10

2-Gentile-Inclusion-After-Acts-10“We have come from Cornelius the centurion. He is a righteous and God-fearing man, who is respected by all the Jewish people.” … 44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit came on all who heard the message.  45 The circumcised believers who had come with Peter were astonished that the gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out even on the Gentiles. (NIV Acts 10:22-45)[2]

The apostles and the brothers throughout Judea heard that the Gentiles also had received the word of God.  2 So when Peter went up to Jerusalem, the circumcised believers criticized him  3 and said, “You went into the house of uncircumcised men and ate with them.”  4 Peter began and explained everything to them precisely as it had happened… 17 “So if God gave them the same gift as he gave us, who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who was I to think that I could oppose God?”  18 When they heard this, they had no further objections and praised God, saying, “So then, God has granted even the Gentiles repentance unto life.” (NIV Acts 11:1-18)

Some men came down from Judea to Antioch and were teaching the brothers: “Unless you are circumcised, according to the custom taught by Moses, you cannot be saved.”  2 This brought Paul and Barnabas into sharp dispute and debate with them… 5 Then some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, “The Gentiles must be circumcised and required to obey the law of Moses.”  6 The apostles and elders met to consider this question.  7 After much discussion, Peter got up and addressed them: “Brothers, you know that some time ago God made a choice among you that the Gentiles might hear from my lips the message of the gospel and believe.  8 God, who knows the heart, showed that he accepted them by giving the Holy Spirit to them, just as he did to us.  9 He made no distinction between us and them, for he purified their hearts by faith.  10 Now then, why do you try to test God by putting on the necks of the disciples a yoke that neither we nor our fathers have been able to bear?  11 No! We believe it is through the grace of our Lord Jesus that we are saved, just as they are.” … 13 When they finished, James spoke up: “Brothers, listen to me.  14 Simon has described to us how God at first showed his concern by taking from the Gentiles a people for himself.  15 The words of the prophets are in agreement with this, as it is written:  16 “‘After this I will return and rebuild David’s fallen tent. Its ruins I will rebuild, and I will restore it,  17 that the remnant of men may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who bear my name, says the Lord, who does these things’  18 that have been known for ages.  19 “It is my judgment, therefore, that we should not make it difficult for the Gentiles who are turning to God.  20 Instead we should write to them, telling them to abstain from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality, from the meat of strangled animals and from blood.  21 For Moses has been preached in every city from the earliest times and is read in the synagogues on every Sabbath.” (NIV Acts 15:1-21)[3]

Paul came also to Derbe and to Lystra. A disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewish woman who was a believer, but his father was a Greek.  2 He was well spoken of by the brothers at Lystra and Iconium.  3 Paul wanted Timothy to accompany him, and he took him and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those places, for they all knew that his father was a Greek. (ESV Acts 16:1-3)

3-Universal-Kingdom-Jew-GentileWhen we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly.  18 On the following day Paul went in with us to James, and all the elders were present.  19 After greeting them, he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through his ministry.  20 And when they heard it, they glorified God. And they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed. They are all zealous for the law21 and they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children or walk according to our customs.  22 What then is to be done? They will certainly hear that you have come.  23 Do therefore what we tell you. We have four men who are under a vow;  24 take these men and purify yourself along with them and pay their expenses, so that they may shave their heads. Thus all will know that there is nothing in what they have been told about you, but that you yourself also live in observance of the law.  25 But as for the Gentiles who have believed, we have sent a letter with our judgment that they should abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from what has been strangled, and from sexual immorality.” (ESV Acts 21:17-25)

C.              Different Stewardships, Same Basis of Faith

For we hold that one is justified by faith apart from works of the law.  29 Or is God the God of Jews only? Is he not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also,  30 since God is one. He will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through faith.  31 Do we then overthrow the law by this faith? By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law. (ESV Romans 3:28-31)

Look: I, Paul, say to you that if you accept circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you.  3 I testify again to every man who accepts circumcision that he is obligated to keep the whole law.  4 You are severed from Christ, you who would be justified by the law; you have fallen away from grace.  5 For through the Spirit, by faith, we ourselves eagerly wait for the hope of righteousness.  6 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision counts for anything, but only faith working through love. (ESV Galatians 5:2-6)

I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! For I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin.  2 God has not rejected his people whom he foreknew… 5 So too at the present time there is a remnant, chosen by grace.  6 But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace. (ESV Romans 11:1-6)

Nevertheless, each one should retain the place in life that the Lord assigned to him and to which God has called him. This is the rule I lay down in all the churches.  18 Was a man already circumcised when he was called? He should not become uncircumcised. Was a man uncircumcised when he was called? He should not be circumcised.  19 Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing. Keeping God’s commands is what counts.  20 Each one should remain in the situation which he was in when God called him. (NIV 1 Corinthians 7:17-20)

D.             Consideration for Different Callings

As for the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions.  2 One person believes he may eat anything, while the weak person eats only vegetables.  3 Let not the one who eats despise the one who abstains, and let not the one who abstains pass judgment on the one who eats, for God has welcomed him.  4 Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand.  5 One person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind.  6 The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God.  7 For none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself… 13 Therefore let us not pass judgment on one another any longer, but rather decide never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother.  14 I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus that nothing is unclean in itself, but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean.  15 For if your brother is grieved by what you eat, you are no longer walking in love. By what you eat, do not destroy the one for whom Christ died… 19 So then let us pursue what makes for peace and for mutual upbuilding20 Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. Everything is indeed clean, but it is wrong for anyone to make another stumble by what he eats.  21 It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble22 The faith that you have, keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who has no reason to pass judgment on himself for what he approves.  23 But whoever has doubts is condemned if he eats, because the eating is not from faith. For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin. (ESV Romans 14:1-23)



[1] “The rite [for the reception of proselytes] consists of three parts: circumcision, baptism, and the offering of a sacrifice in the temple… The non-Jew received thus into Judaism was regarded after conversion ‘in every respect as a Jew,’ b. Jeb., 47b. This means in the first instance that like every Jew he is under obligation to keep the whole Jewish Law. In keeping is the saying of Paul in Gl. 5:3: μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ περιτεμνομένῳ ὅτι ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον ποιῆσαι [“I testify again to every man who accepts circumcision that he is obligated to keep the whole law”].” (K. G. Kuhn, “προσήλυτος,”TDNT, 6:738-39)

[2] “The attitude of the primitive Palestinian community to σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν [“God-fearer”] was based on that of Palestinian Judaism. The only non-Jew to have a part in the salvation effected in Jesus was the one who had first become a member of the Jewish people by the acceptance of circumcision and of the obligation to keep the whole Jewish Torah. Otherwise the non-Jew remained a Gentile and as such he would fall victim to God’s wrath in the Last Judgment.” (K. G. Kuhn, “προσήλυτος,”TDNT, 6:743)

[3] “But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, which they ought to let depart free and unrestrained, burying the blood, as it were, in the body. For it ought to have been sufficient for them to enjoy the flesh by itself, without touching any of those parts which have an connection with the soul or life. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the fat. The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.” (Philo of Alexandria, The Special Laws, 4.122-123; The Works of Philo [Hendrickson, 1995], 628)

EVANGELISTIC DELINEATION BETWEEN JEW AND GENTILE

EVANGELISTIC DELINEATION BETWEEN JEW AND GENTILE

A.             Evangelistic Calling

On the contrary, when they saw that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been entrusted with the gospel to the circumcised  8 (for he who worked through Peter for his apostolic ministry to the circumcised worked also through me for mine to the Gentiles),  9 and when James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given to me, they gave the right hand of fellowship to Barnabas and me, that we should go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. (ESV Galatians 2:7-9)

To the Jews I became as a Jew, so that I might win Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law though not being myself under the Law, so that I might win those who are under the Law;  21 to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, so that I might win those who are without law.  22 To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, so that I may by all means save some. (NASB 1 Corinthians 9:20-22)

B.             Evangelistic Order

For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.  17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith for faith, as it is written, “The righteous shall live by faith.” (ESV Romans 1:16-17)

And after the meeting of the synagogue broke up, many Jews and devout converts to Judaism followed Paul and Barnabas, who, as they spoke with them, urged them to continue in the grace of God.  44 The next Sabbath almost the whole city gathered to hear the word of the Lord.  45 But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy and began to contradict what was spoken by Paul, reviling him.  46 And Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, saying, “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken first to you. Since you thrust it aside and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we are turning to the Gentiles47 For so the Lord has commanded us, saying, “‘ I have made you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring salvation to the ends of the earth.'”  48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they began rejoicing and glorifying the word of the Lord, and as many as were appointed to eternal life believed. (ESV Acts 13:43-48)

Every Sabbath he reasoned in the synagogue… testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ.  6 But when the Jews opposed Paul and became abusive, he shook out his clothes in protest and said to them, “Your blood be on your own heads! I am clear of my responsibility. From now on I will go to the Gentiles.” (NIV Acts 18:4-6)

C.              No Distinction in Basis or Quality of Salvation

For with the heart one believes and is justified, and with the mouth one confesses and is saved.  11 For the Scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.”  12 For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him. (ESV Romans 10:10-12)

You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus,  27 for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ.  28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.  29 If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise. (NIV Galatians 3:26-29)

Therefore remember that at one time you Gentiles in the flesh… were at that time separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world.  13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ14 For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one… that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two…  18 For through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father.  19 So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God. (ESV Ephesians 2:11-19)

D.             Distinction in Role of Inheritance

This is what Isaiah son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem2 In the last days the mountain of the LORD’s temple will be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and all nations will stream to it.  3 Many peoples will come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob. He will teach us his ways, so that we may walk in his paths.” The law will go out from Zion, the word of the LORD from Jerusalem4 He will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples. They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore. (NIV Isaiah 2:1-4)

I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart.  3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh4 They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises.  5 To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen. (ESV Romans 9:2-5)

So I ask, did they stumble in order that they might fall? By no means! Rather through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous12 Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!  13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry  14 in order somehow to make my fellow Jews jealous, and thus save some of them… 28 As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.  29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. (ESV Romans 11:11-29)

OBSTACLES OF JEWISH EVANGELISM

OBSTACLES OF JEWISH EVANGELISM

A.             The Offense of the Cross and Divine Atonement

But if I, brothers, still preach circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been removed.  12 I wish those who unsettle you would emasculate themselves! (ESV Galatians 5:11-12)

For there is no distinction:  23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,  24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus,  25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. (ESV Romans 3:22-25)

Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved.  2 I bear them witness that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge.  3 For, being ignorant of the righteousness that comes from God, and seeking to establish their own, they did not submit to God’s righteousness. (ESV Romans 10:1-3)

B.             The Offense of Realized Eschatology

What is it, after all, that marks the difference between Christians and Jews? … Jews believe in the eventual fulfillment of an elusive dream of a perfect world. Christians believe that the world has already been saved by the crucifixion and resurrection of the Messiah Jesus. The difference between the belief in future redemption and realized redemption is the chasm that separates Jewish from Christian thinking.[1]

The Jew is profoundly aware of the unredeemed character of the world, and he perceives and recognizes no enclave of redemption in the midst of its unredeemedness. The concept of the redeemed soul in the midst of an unredeemed world is alien to the Jew, profoundly alien, inaccessible from the primal ground of his existence. This is the innermost reason for Israel’s rejection of Jesus, not a merely external, merely national conception of messianism. In Jewish eyes, redemption means redemption from all evil. Evil of body and soul, evil in creation and civilization. So when we say redemption, we mean the whole of redemption. Between creation and redemption we know only one caesura: the revelation of God’s will.[2]

The church rests on its faith that the Christ has come, and that this is the redemption which God has bestowed on mankind. We, Israel, are not able to believe this… We know more deeply, more truly, that world history has not been turned upside down to its very foundations—that the world is not yet redeemed. We sense its unredeemedness. The church can, or indeed must, understand this sense of ours as the awareness that we are not redeemed. But we know that that is not it. The redemption of the world is for us indivisibly one with the perfecting of creation, with the establishment of the unity which nothing more prevents, the unity which is no longer controverted, and which is realized in all the protean variety of the world. Redemption is one with the kingdom of God in its fulfilment. An anticipation of any single part of the completed redemption of the world—for example the redemption beforehand of the soul—is something we cannot grasp, although even for us in our mortal hours redeeming and redemption are heralded. But we can perceive no caesura in history. We are aware of no centre in history—only its goal, the goal of the way taken by the God who does not linger on his way.[3]



[1] David S. Ariel, What Do Jews Believe? The Spiritual Foundations of Judaism (New York: Schocken Books, 1995), 232.

[2] Schalom Ben-Chorin, Die Antwort des Jona (Hamburg, 1956), 99; quoted in Jürgen Moltmann, The Way of Jesus Christ: Christology in Messianic Dimensions, trans. Margaret Kohl (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1993), 29.

[3] Martin Buber, Der Jude und sein Judentum (Cologne, 1963), 562; quoted in Moltmann, The Way of Jesus Christ, 28-29.

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LAKOG Class 4b Though Jew and Gentile alike are saved upon the same basis of faith in the Cross, the early church did not approach evangelism and discipleship among Jew and Gentile homogenously. There was a clear order to evangelism (Acts 13:46ff; 18:4ff; Rom. 1:16), and there was a clear distinction in discipleship (Acts 15:19ff; 21:20-25). It would serve the Church well to see these distinctions, so that modern evangelists don’t unnecessarily offend both Jew and Gentile. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/evangelism-jews-gentiles-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John <iframe width="565" height="360" src="https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?powerpress_embed=6531-course-video&amp;powerpress_player=html5video" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" webkitAllowFullScreen mozallowfullscreen allowFullScreen></iframe> 6531
Cruciform-Apocalypticism Question & Answer https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/cruciform-apocalypticism-question-answer/ Wed, 29 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6118 In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 1's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. LAKOG Class 1 Q&A In this audion you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 1's teaching with John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/cruciform-apocalypticism-question-answer EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John 6118 Biblical Theology: Cruciform-Apocalypticism https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/biblical-theology-cruciform-apocalypticism-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Wed, 29 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6024 Biblical theology is built upon a simple linear timeline. It has a real historical beginning; it has a radically apocalyptic ending; and it has cross-shaped center. If we embrace the cross in this age, we will be saved from the wrath to come and inherit eternal life. This is technically termed cruciform-apocalypticism. LAKOG Session 1 Biblical theology is built upon a simple linear timeline. It has a real historical beginning; it has a radically apocalyptic ending; and it has cross-shaped center. If we embrace the cross in this age, we will be saved from the wrath to come and inherit eternal life. This is technically termed cruciform-apocalypticism. FOR NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/biblical-theology-cruciform-apocalypticism EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John 6024 Jewish Expectations of the Age to Come Part 1 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/jewish-expectation-age-to-come-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Wed, 29 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6064 What are the Jewish expectations of the Kingdom of God? Did Jesus change those expectations at his first coming? This session works through some of the issues and examines the Israel-centered administration of eternal life in the age to come. LAKOG Class 2a What are the Jewish expectations of the Kingdom of God? Did Jesus change those expectations at his first coming? This session works through some of the issues and examines the Israel-centered administration of eternal life in the age to come. NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/jewish-expectation-age-to-come-1-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John 6064 Jewish Expectations of the Age to Come Part 2 https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/jewish-expectation-age-to-come-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Wed, 29 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6475 What are the Jewish expectations of the Kingdom of God? Did Jesus change those expectations at his first coming? This session works through some of the issues and examines the Israel-centered administration of eternal life in the age to come. LAKOG Class 2b What are the Jewish expectations of the Kingdom of God? Did Jesus change those expectations at his first coming? This session works through some of the issues and examines the Israel-centered administration of eternal life in the age to come. NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/jewish-expectation-age-to-come-2-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John 6475 Jewish Expectations of the Age to Come Question and Answer https://danieltrainingnetwork.org/jewish-expectation-age-to-come-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god/ Wed, 29 May 2013 05:37:46 +0000 http://danieltrainingnetwork.org/?p=6484 In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 2's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. LAKOG Class 2 Q&A In this resource you hear various questions from the audience concerning session 2's teaching and John Harrigan seeking to answer each of them. NOTES AND FEEDBACK: http://www.danieltrainingnetwork.org/jewish-expectation-age-to-come-q-a-living-anticipation-kingdom-of-god EMAIL: podcast@danieltrainingnetwork.org FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/danieltrainingnetwork TWITTER: http://www.twitter.com/dtnetworking John 6484