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In terms of Biblical prophecy, Daniel 9 is one of the most important chapters of the Bible. In Daniel 9, God gives Daniel a detailed prophetic timeline of the future that includes key events in redemptive history, such as the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile, the death of the Messiah, and the second destruction of the Jewish temple following Jesus’ first coming. Two verses that require particular attentiveness are Daniel 9:26 and Daniel 9:27. In regard to the latter, the big question is: Is the angel Gabriel in this verse describing the work of the Anti-Christ, or the work of the Messiah? This is obviously a huge difference! Both views have been held and argued for in the church’s history. Which one is right? Come and decide for yourself as we examine these two lines of interpretation in detail.

This teaching was taught by Tim Miller in context to a house church gathering in Duluth, MN.



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Daniel 9



  1. Daniel’s Grief

1In the first year of Darius son of Xerxes (a Mede by descent), who was made ruler over the Babylonian  kingdom— 2 in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood from the Scriptures, according to the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation (Zion “empty” of her sons) of Jerusalem would last seventy years. 3 So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes. 4 I prayed to the Lord my God and confessed: “O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps his covenant of love with all who love him and obey his commands, 5 we have sinned and done wrong. We have been wicked and have rebelled; we have turned away from your commands and laws (in the Torah). 6 We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes and our fathers, and to all the people of the land. 7 “Lord, you are righteous, but this day we are covered with shame—the men of Judah and people of Jerusalem and all Israel, both near and far, in all the countries where you have scattered us because of our unfaithfulness to you. 8 O Lord, we and our kings, our princes and our fathers are covered with shame because we have sinned against you. 9 The Lord our God is merciful and forgiving, even though we have rebelled against him; 10 we have not obeyed the Lord our God or kept the laws he gave us through his servants the prophets. 11 All Israel has transgressed your law and turned away, refusing to obey you. “Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses (e.g. Deut. 28:15-68), the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against you. 12 You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing upon us great disaster. Under the whole heaven nothing has ever been done like what has been done to Jerusalem. 13 Just as it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us, yet we have not sought the favor of the Lord our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to your truth. 14 The Lord did not hesitate to bring the disaster upon us, for the Lord our God is righteous in everything he does; yet we have not obeyed him. 15 “Now, O Lord our God, who brought your people out of Egypt with a mighty hand and who made for yourself a name that endures to this day, we have sinned, we have done wrong. 16 O Lord, in keeping with all your righteous acts, turn away your anger and your wrath from Jerusalem, your city, your holy hill. Our sins and the iniquities of our fathers have made Jerusalem and your people an object of scorn to all those around us. 17 “Now, our God, hear the prayers and petitions of your servant. For your sake, O Lord, look with favor on your desolate sanctuary. 18 Give ear, O God, and hear; open your eyes and see the desolation of the city that bears your Name(note that desolate primarily is referring to the fact that Zion is not inhabited by her children. This was initially caused by her destruction, but the lament is for the entire period where her children are absent). We do not make requests of you because we are righteous, but because of your great mercy. 19 O Lord, listen! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, hear and act! For your sake, O my God, do not delay, because your city and your people bear your Name.”  (NIV Dan. 9:1-16)

  1. Daniel 9 Prophetic Timeline

20 While I was speaking and praying, confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and making my request to the Lord my God for his holy hill— 21 while I was still in prayer, Gabriel, the man I had seen in the earlier vision, came to me in swift flight about the time of the evening sacrifice. 22 He instructed me and said to me, “Daniel, I have now come to give you insight and understanding. 23 As soon as you began to pray, an answer was given, which I have come to tell you, for you are highly esteemed. Therefore, consider the message and understand the vision: 24 “Seventy ‘sevens’ (NIV note/most other translations – “weeks”; weeks of years[1]; 7 heptads of years=1 Jubilee Cycle) are decreed for your people and your holy city to finish transgression, to put an end to sin, to atone for wickedness, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal up vision and prophecy (cf. 1 Cor. 13:8, 12) and to anoint the most holy. 25 “Know and understand this: From the issuing of the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem (under Cyrus[2] Is. 44:28) until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven ‘sevens,’ and sixty-two ‘sevens.’ It will be rebuilt with streets and a trench, but in times of trouble.

  • 18 “ ‘If after all this you will not listen to me, I will punish you for your sins seven times over. 19 I will break down your stubborn pride and make the sky above you like iron and the ground beneath you like bronze. 20 Your strength will be spent in vain, because your soil will not yield its crops, nor will the trees of the land yield their fruit. 21 “ ‘If you remain hostile toward me and refuse to listen to me, I will multiply your afflictions seven times over, as your sins deserve. 22 I will send wild animals against you, and they will rob you of your children, destroy your cattle and make you so few in number that your roads will be deserted. 23 “ ‘If in spite of these things you do not accept my correction but continue to be hostile toward me, 24 I myself will be hostile toward you and will afflict you for your sins seven times over. 25 And I will bring the sword upon you to avenge the breaking of the covenant. When you withdraw into your cities, I will send a plague among you, and you will be given into enemy hands. (NIVLev. 26:18-25)

8 “ ‘Count off seven sabbaths of years—seven times seven years—so that the seven sabbaths of years amount to a period of forty-nine years. 9 Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the Day of Atonement sound the trumpet throughout your land. 10 Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee for you; each one of you is to return to his family property and each to his own clan. 11 The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not sow and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines. …13 “ ‘In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return to his own property. …39 “ ‘If one of your countrymen becomes poor among you and sells himself to you, do not make him work as a slave. 40 He is to be treated as a hired worker or a temporary resident among you; he is to work for you until the Year of Jubilee. 41 Then he and his children are to be released, and he will go back to his own clan and to the property of his forefathers. 42 Because the Israelites are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt, they must not be sold as slaves. (NIVLev. 25:8-11, 13, 39)

[1]7620 שָׁבוּעַ, שְׁבוּעָה [shabuwa`, shabua`, shâbu`ah /shaw·boo·ah/] n m. Properly, pass part of 7650 as a denom. of 7651; TWOT 2318d; GK 8651 and 8652; 20 occurrences; AV translates as “week” 19 times, and “seven” once. 1 seven, period of seven (days or years), heptad, week. 1a period of seven days, a week. 1a1 Feast of Weeks. 1b heptad, seven (of years). Strong, J. (1996). The exhaustive concordance of the Bible : Showing every word of the text of the common English version of the canonical books, and every occurrence of each word in regular order. (electronic ed.) (H7620). Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship.

[2] See Tim Warner, “Daniel’s 70 Weeks On Second Thought,” <>



  1. Background

“The Sopherim (from Hebrew meaning “scribes”) were the Jewish scholars and custodians of the Old Testament text between the fifth and the third centuries b.c. whose responsibility it was to standardize and preserve it. They were followed by the Zugoth (“pairs” of textual scholars) in the second and first centuries b.c. The third group were Tannaim (“repeaters” or “teachers”),whose work extended to a.d. 200. The work of Tannaim can be found in the Midrash (“textual interpretation”), Tosefta (“addition”), and Talmud (“instruction”), which latter is divided into Mishnah (“repetitions”) and Gemara (“the matter to be learned”). The Talmud gradually was written between a.d. 100 and 500. Between a.d. 500 and 950 the Masoretes added the vowel pointings and pronunciation marks to the consonantal Hebrew text received from the Sopherim, on the basis of the Masora (“tradition”) that had been handed down to them. The Masoretes were scribes who codified and wrote down the oral criticisms and remarks on the Hebrew text. There were two major schools or centers of Masoretic activity, each largely independent of the other, the Babylonian and the Palestinian. The most famous Masoretes were the Jewish scholars living in Tiberias in Galilee, Moses ben Asher (with his son Aaron) and Moses ben Naphtali, in the late ninth and tenth centuries a.d. The ben Asher text is the standard text for the Hebrew Bible today as best represented by Codex Leningradensis B 19A (L) and the Aleppo Codex.” [1]

  1. Daniel 9:26-27 (Masoretic Text) Option 1: Desolator/Covenant-Maker=Anti-Christ

26 And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one (NASB “the Messiah”) shall be cut off (crucified) and shall have nothing. And the people (armies) of the prince (Anti-Christ) who is to come (at the end of the age) shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its (ESV note – Or his) end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war. Desolations are decreed.27 And he (the Anti-Christ) shall make a strong covenant (interpreted as false peace treaty with Israel; NASB – “a firm covenant”; NIV/KJV – “he will confirm”) with many (Israel) for one week, and for half of the week he shall put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate (the Anti-Christ), until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator (the Anti-Christ).” (ESVDan. 9:26-27)

  1. Daniel 9:26-27 (Masoretic Text) Option 2: Desolater/Covenant-Maker=Messiah (overseeing/sending Gentile armies against Jerusalem)

26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people (the Jews) of the prince (the Messiah) that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof (the end of the city and sanctuary) shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war (against the city) desolations are determined (against the city). 27 And he (the Messiah) shall confirm the covenant (or “make a firm covenant”, NASB) with many (nations) for one week: and in the midst of the week (after 3.5 years) he (the Messiah) shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease (Heb. 8-10), and for the overspreading of abominations (ESV – “and on the wing of abominations”; Old KJV note – “Or with the abominable armies”[2] i.e. the Messiah directing/overseeing the idolatrous armies swooping down on Israel like an eagle, cf. Is. 8:5-8,  Jer. 48:40-43, Lk. 21:20) he (the Messiah) shall make it (the city) desolate, even until the consummation (i.e. the end of the age), and that determined (desolations through the times of the Gentiles) shall be poured upon the desolate (city). (KJVDan. 9:26-27)

  • 5 The Lord spoke to me again: 6 “Because this people has rejected the gently flowing waters of Shiloah and rejoices over Rezin and the son of Remaliah, 7 therefore the Lord (the Lord is the one ultimately overseeing and directing the armies) is about to bring against them the mighty floodwaters of the Riverthe king of Assyria (flood used as metaphor for Gentil army) with all his pomp. It will overflow all its channels, run over all its banks 8 and sweep on into Judah, swirling over it, passing through it and reaching up to the neck (Jerusalem). Its outspread wings (KJV – “and the stretching out of his wings”; NASB “and the spread of its wings”; like an eagle swooping to attack, cf. Jer. 48:40-43) will cover the breadth of your land, O Immanuel! (NET – “He will spread his wings out over your entire land, O Immanuel)” (NIVIs. 8:5-8)
  • 40 This is what the Lord says: “Look! An eagle is swooping down, spreading its wings over Moab. 41 Kerioth will be captured and the strongholds (fortified cities) taken. In that day the hearts of Moab’s warriors will be like the heart of a woman in labor. 42 Moab will be destroyed as a nation because she defied the Lord. 43 Terror and pit and snare await you, O people of Moab,” declares the Lord. (NIVJer. 48:40-43)
  • 11 Has a nation ever changed its gods? (Yet they are not gods at all.) But my people have exchanged their Glory for worthless idols. 12 Be appalled at this, O heavens, and shudder with great horror,” declares the Lord. 13 “My people have committed two sins: They have forsaken me, the spring of living water, and have dug their own cisterns, broken cisterns that cannot hold water. 14 Is Israel a servant, a slave by birth? Why then has he become plunder? 15  Lions (Gentile armies) have roared; they have growled at him. They have laid waste his land; his towns are burned and deserted. 16Also, the men of Memphis and Tahpanhes have shaved the crown of your head. 17 Have you not brought this on yourselves by forsaking the Lord your God when he led you in the way? 18Now why go to Egypt to drink water from the Shihor? And why go to Assyria to drink water from the River? 19 Your wickedness will punish you; your backsliding will rebuke you. Consider then and realize how evil and bitter it is for you when you forsake the Lord your God and have no awe of me,” declares the Lord, the Lord Almighty. (NIVJer. 2:11-19)
  • 17 Do you not see what they are doing in the towns of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem? 18 The children gather wood, the fathers light the fire, and the women knead the dough and make cakes of bread for the Queen of Heaven. They pour out drink offerings to other gods to provoke me to anger. 19 But am I the one they are provoking? declares the Lord. Are they not rather harming themselves, to their own shame? (NIVJer. 7:18-19)
  • 16 “Tell this to the nations, proclaim it to Jerusalem: ‘A besieging army is coming from a distant land, raising a war cry against the cities of Judah. 17 They surround her like men guarding a field, because she has rebelled against me,’ ” declares the Lord. 18Your own conduct and actions have brought this upon you. This is your punishment. How bitter it is! How it pierces to the heart!” (NIVJer 4:16-18)
  • 4 Through your own fault you will lose the inheritance I gave you. I will enslave you to your enemies in a land you do not know, for you have kindled my anger, and it will burn forever.” (NIVJer. 17:4)

2. (314) But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the city, and plundered every house, and slew everyone they met; (315) and for the other multitude, they esteemed it needless to go on with killing them, but they sought for the high priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; (316) and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Ananus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. (317) Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. (318) I should not mistake if I said that the death of Ananus was the beginning of the destruction of the city, and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruin of her affairs, whereon they saw their high priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city. (319) He was on other accounts also a venerable, and a very just man; and besides the grandeur of that nobility, and dignity, and honor, of which he was possessed, he had been a lover of a kind of parity, even with regard to the meanest of the people…[3]

[1] Geisler, N. L., & Nix, W. E. (1996, c1986). A general introduction to the Bible. Includes indexes. Includes a short-title checklist of English translations of the Bible (chronologically arranged). (Rev. and expanded.) (371). Chicago: Moody Press.

[2] The Cambridge Paragraph Bible: Of the Authorized English Version. 2006 (cxix). Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[3] Josephus, F., & Whiston, W. (1996, c1987). The works of Josephus : Complete and unabridged. Includes index. (Wars 4.318-319). Peabody: Hendrickson.



  1. Background

“The lxx translations are valuable for four major reasons among others: (1) they are a witness to the influence of Hellenism on Judaism both in the Diaspora and in Palestine; (2) they form a linguistic bridgehead between the theological vocabulary of the OT and that of the NT; (3) they were the translations in which the church Fathers read their OT in the centuries when they were building their formal theologies; (4) they are an important part of the evidence for the reconstruction of the history of the text of the Heb. OT. The translators undoubtedly sometimes had before them a Heb. text superior to the MT; and the NT itself sometimes (e.g. in Heb. 11:21 follows the lxx rather than the MT. Moreover the Dead Sea Scrolls have shown us that the Lxx’s disagreements with the MT are more often based on non-MT-type Heb. Mss than some scholars had previously thought. On the other hand the fact that some ancient Heb. ms agrees with the lxx against the MT, does not necessarily mean that ms automatically represents the original better than the MT does. The matter still has to be decided by the ordinary canons of textual criticism.”[1]

  1. Theodotion

“Theodotion (Θεοδοτίων, gen.: Θεοδοτίωνος; d. ca. AD 200) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar, perhaps working in Ephesus, who in ca. AD 150 translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek. Whether he was revising the Septuagint, or was working from Hebrew manuscripts that represented a parallel tradition that has not survived, is debated. In the 2nd century Theodotion’s text was quoted in the Shepherd of Hermas and in the Christian apologist Justin Martyr‘s Trypho. His finished version, which filled some lacunae in the Septuagint version of the Book of Jeremiah and Book of Job, formed one column in Origen of Alexandria‘s Hexapla, ca. AD 240. (The Hexapla, now only extant in fragments, presented six Hebrew and Greek texts side-by-side: two Greek versions, by Aquila and Symmachus, preceding the Septuagint, and Theodotion’s version following it, apparently reflecting a contemporary understanding of their historical sequence.) Theodotion’s translation was so widely copied in the Early Christian church that its version of the Book of Daniel virtually superseded the Septuagint’s. Jerome (in his preface to Daniel, AD 407) records the rejection of the Septuagint’s version of that book in Christian usage. Jerome’s preface also mentions that the Hexapla had notations in it, indicating several major differences in content between the Theodotion Daniel and the earlier versions in Greek and Hebrew. However, Theodotion’s Daniel is closer to the modern Hebrew Masoretic Text version (the Hebrew text said to have been finalized ca. AD 130), that is the basis for most modern translations. Theodotion’s Daniel is also the one embodied in the authorised edition of the Septuagint published by Sixtus V in 1587.” [2]

  1. Daniel 9:26-27 LXX (Brenton’s English Translation (1851)) – Question: Which line of interpretation does the Septuagint/Theodotion seem to favor?

26And after the sixty-two weeks, the anointed one shall be destroyed, and there is no judgment  (condemnation; Charles Thomson “no crime”) in him: and he (the anointed one or Messiah, sovereign over kingdoms) shall destroy the city and the sanctuary with the prince (through the instrumentality of a Gentile army, cf. De 28:49-52; 2Ki 24:2;2Ch 36:6,17; Jer 1:15,16, 4:6,8 5:15, 6:22,23, 21:4, 25:9, Hab. 1) that is coming : they (the city and the temple) shall be cut off with a flood, and to the end of the war which is rapidly completed (Gk. “soontemno” – 1 to cut in pieces. 2 to cut short[3] cf. NETS “to the finish of a shortened war”; cf. Mat. 24:22) he  (the Messiah) shall appoint the city to desolations. 27And one week (7 years) shall establish the covenant (the everlasting covenant; at end of first 3.5 betrothal, at end of second 3.5 consummation; or “he will establish”) with many (nations, cf. Is. 53:, Rom. 5:12-20, Rom. 11:25-26): and in the midst of the week (first 3.5, Jesus’ ministry) my sacrifice and drink-offering shall be taken away (Messiah crucified, cf. Heb. 8-10): and on the temple (Gk. hieros – the holy; holy people? holy land? holy temple?) shall be the abomination of desolations (after the crucifixion, the armies of vs. 26 would surround Jerusalem, cf. Lk. 19:43, 21:20); and at the end of time (when the “times of the Gentiles” are complete and the fullness of the Gentile harvest has come in, cfl Lk. 21:24, Rom. 11:25-26) an end shall be put to the desolation (of Jerusalem, cf. Lk. 21:24) (Brenton LXXDan. 9:26-27, cf. NIV note, KJV, and Interlinear translation below).(Daniel 9:26-27, Brenton’s English Translation (1851))

[1]Wood, D. R. W., & Marshall, I. H. (1996). New Bible dictionary (3rd ed.) (1172). Leicester, England; Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

[2] <>

[3]Strongs Concordance – “4932 συντέμνω [suntemno /soon·tem·no/] v. From 4862 and the base of 5114; GK 5335; Two occurrences; AV translates as “cut short” once, and “short” once. 1 to cut in pieces. 2 to cut short. 3 metaph. 3a to dispatch briefly, execute or finish quickly. 3b to hasten. 3c a short word i.e. an expedited prophecy or decree.” Strong, J. (1996). The exhaustive concordance of the Bible : Showing every word of the text of the common English version of the canonical books, and every occurrence of each word in regular order. (electronic ed.) (G4932). Ontario: Woodside Bible Fellowship.



  1. Emendation is an attempt to reconstruct the original meaning of a word or phrase based on the original Hebrew consonants. This is usually employed when the meaning of a word or phrase is unclear, ambiguous, or obscure despite (or because of) the vowel punctuations of the Masoretic text. However, it can have value in other situations as well.
  • “After the fall of Jerusalem (70), Tiberias became one of the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine. It was for more than three hundred years their metropolis. From about 150 the Sanhedrin settled here, and established rabbinical schools, which rose to great celebrity. Here the Jerusalem (or Palestinian) Talmud was compiled about the beginning of the fifth century. To this same rabbinical school also we are indebted for the Masora, a “body of traditions which transmitted the readings of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and preserved, by means of the vowel-system, the pronunciation of the Hebrew.” In its original form, and in all manuscripts, the Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it ceased to be a spoken language, the importance of knowing what vowels to insert between the consonants. This is supplied by the Masora, and hence these vowels are called the “Masoretic vowel-points.”[1]
  • “These issues notwithstanding, the text of the LXX is generally close to that of the Masoretes and vulgate. For example, Genesis 4:1-6 is identical in both the LXX, Vulgate and the Masoretic Text. Likewise, Genesis 4:8 to the end of the chapter is the same. There is only one noticeable difference in that chapter, at 4:7, to wit:

Genesis 4:7, LXX (NETS)

Genesis 4:7, Masoretic and English Translation from MT (Judaica Press)

Genesis 4:7, Latin Vulgate (Douay-Rheims)

If you offer correctly but do not divide correctly, have you not sinned? Be still; his recourse is to you, and you will rule over him. הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ: Is it not so that if you improve, it will be forgiven you? If you do not improve, however, at the entrance, sin is lying, and to you is its longing, but you can rule over it.” If thou do well, shalt thou not receive? but if ill, shall not sin forthwith be present at the door? but the lust thereof shall be under thee, and thou shalt have dominion over it.

This instance illustrates the complexity of assessing differences between the LXX and the Masoretic Text as well as the Vulgate. Despite the striking divergence of meaning here between the Septuagint and later texts, nearly identical consonantal Hebrew source texts can be reconstructed. The readily apparent semantic differences result from alternative strategies for interpreting the difficult verse and relate to differences in vowelization and punctuation of the consonantal text.”[2]

  1. Daniel 9:26 Hebrew Interlinear[3]

26 And after the sixty-two ‘sevens,’ the Anointed One will be cut off and will have nothing . And the city and the holy place he will destroy with the ruler who will come. (Author Dan. 9:26a-b, cf. LXX Brenton)

  1. Daniel 9 Hebrew Text Alternative

26 And after (3.5 years after, cf. vs. 27) the sixty-two ‘sevens,’ the Anointed One (Messiah) will be cut off (from the land of the living) and will have nothing. And the city and the holy he will destroy with the ruler who will come. Its end shall come with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. 27 And he (the Messiah) shall confirm the covenant (or “make a firm covenant”, NASB) with many (nations) for one week: and in the midst of the week (after 3.5 years) he (the Messiah) shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease (Heb. 8-10), and on (i.e. directing, overseeing) the wing of abominations (idolatrous armies swooping down on Israel like an eagle, cf. Is. 8:5-8,  Jer. 48:40-43; Old KJV note – “Or with the abominable armies”[4]) he (the Messiah) shall make it (the city and sanctuary) desolate, even until the consummation (i.e. the end of the age), and that determined (desolations through the times of the Gentiles) shall be poured upon the desolate (city).

[1]Easton, M. (1996, c1897). Easton’s Bible dictionary. Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[3] For more, see “Alternate Transliteration of Daniel 9:26,” <>.

[4] The Cambridge Paragraph Bible: Of the Authorized English Version. 2006 (cxix). Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.



  1. Which line of interpretation does the rest of Scripture as a whole tend to favor?

31 At that time some Pharisees came to Jesus and said to him, “Leave this place and go somewhere else. Herod wants to kill you.” 32 He replied, “Go tell that fox, ‘I will drive out demons and heal people today and tomorrow, and on the third day I will reach my goal.’ 33 In any case, I must keep going today and tomorrow and the next day—for surely no prophet can die outside Jerusalem! 34 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! 35 Look, your house is left to you desolate. I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’” (NIVLk. 13:31-35)

41 As he approached Jerusalem and saw the city, he wept over it 42 and said, “If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace (the death or “cutting off” of the Messiah)—but now it is hidden from your eyes. 43 The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. 44 They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognize the time of God’s coming to you (the cause of Jerusalem’s destruction in 70AD was their rejection of Jesus as Messiah).” (NIVLk. 19:41-44).

20 “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near. 21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those in the city get out, and let those in the country not enter the city. 22 For this is the time of punishment in fulfillment of all that has been written (in Dan. 9:26-27). 23 How dreadful it will be in those days for pregnant women and nursing mothers! There will be great distress in the land and wrath against this people. 24 They will fall by the sword and will be taken as prisoners to all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. (NIVLk. 21:20-24)

1Jesus spoke to them again in parables, saying: 2 “The kingdom of heaven is like a king who prepared a wedding banquet for his son. 3 He sent his servants to those who had been invited to the banquet (Israel) to tell them to come, but they refused to come. 4 “Then he sent some more servants and said, ‘Tell those who have been invited that I have prepared my dinner: My oxen and fattened cattle have been butchered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.’ 5 “But they paid no attention and went off—one to his field, another to his business. 6 The rest seized his servants, mistreated them and killed them. 7 The king was enraged. He sent his army and destroyed those murderers and burned their city. 8 “Then he said to his servants (the apostles and his other disciples in Israel), ‘The wedding banquet is ready, but those I invited did not deserve to come. 9 Go to the street corners and invite to the banquet anyone you find.’ (the Gentiles – the “covenant with many”) 10 So the servants went out into the streets and gathered all the people they could find, both good and bad, and the wedding hall was filled with guests. 11 “But when the king came in to see the guests, he noticed a man there who was not wearing wedding clothes (i.e. robes not washed in the blood of the Lamb, cf. Rev. 7:14). 12 ‘Friend,’ he asked, ‘how did you get in here without wedding clothes?’ The man was speechless. 13 “Then the king told the attendants, ‘Tie him hand and foot, and throw him outside, into the darkness, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ 14 “For many are invited, but few are chosen.” (NIVMt. 22:1-14)

30 I will no longer talk much with you, for the ruler of this world is coming, and he has nothing in Me (cf. Dan. 9;26 – “no judgment in him,” no condemnation, no crime; He was spotless). 31 But that the world may know that I love the Father, and as the Father gave Me commandment, so I do. Arise, let us go from here. (NKJVJn. 14:30-31)

33 “You snakes! You brood of vipers! How will you escape being condemned to hell? 34 Therefore I am sending you prophets and wise men and teachers. Some of them you will kill and crucify; others you will flog in your synagogues and pursue from town to town. 35 And so upon you will come all the righteous blood that has been shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. 36 I tell you the truth, all this will come upon this generation. 37 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing. 38 Look, your house is left to you desolate. 39 For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’” (NIV Mt. 23:33-39)

26 As they led him away, they seized Simon from Cyrene, who was on his way in from the country, and put the cross on him and made him carry it behind Jesus. 27 A large number of people followed him, including women who mourned and wailed for him. 28 Jesus turned and said to them, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me; weep for yourselves and for your children. 29 For the time will come when you will say, ‘Blessed are the barren women, the wombs that never bore and the breasts that never nursed!’ 30 Then “ ‘they will say to the mountains, “Fall on us!” and to the hills, “Cover us!” ’ (Hos. 10:8)31 For if men do these things when the tree is green (time of abundance and fruitfulness, i.e. Jesus’ ministsry), what will happen when it is dry?” (i.e. when the crisis comes) (NIV Lk. 23:26-31)

14 But Zion said, “The Lord has forsaken me, the Lord has forgotten me.” 15 “Can a mother forget the baby at her breast and have no compassion on the child she has borne? Though she may forget, I will not forget you! 16 See, I have engraved you on the palms of my hands; your walls are ever before me. 17 Your sons hasten back, and those who laid you waste depart from you. 18 Lift up your eyes and look around; all your sons gather and come to you. As surely as I live,” declares the Lord, “you will wear them all as ornaments; you will put them on, like a bride. 19 “Though you were ruined and made desolate, and your land laid waste, now you will be too small for your people, and those who devoured you will be far away. 20 The children born during your bereavement (i.e. the period when Jerusalem was “trampled underfoot by the Gentiles” during the “times of the Gentils” Lk. 21:24) will yet say in your hearing, ‘This place is too small for us; give us more space to live in.’ 21 Then you will say in your heart, ‘Who bore me these? I was bereaved and barren; I was exiled and rejected. Who brought these up? I was left all alone, but these—where have they come from?’ ” (cf. Rev. 7:9-13)22 This is what the Sovereign Lord says: “See, I will beckon to the Gentiles, I will lift up my banner to the peoples; they will bring your sons in their arms and carry your daughters on their shoulders. (NIVIs. 49:14-22)

11 After the suffering of his soul, he will see the light of life and be satisfied (NIV note – Or (with Masoretic Text) He will see the result of the suffering of his soul / and be satisfied); by his knowledge (NIV note – Or by knowledge of him) my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities. 12 Therefore I will give him a portion (portion=inheritance, cf. e.g. Deut. 32:9, Josh. 17:14, 19:9, 1 Chron. 16:18, Is. 61:7) among the great (NIV note – Or many; Heb. rab – many; i.e. I will give Him an inheritance among the many nations, cf. Eph. 1:18) and he will divide (i.e. share) the spoils with the strong (NIV note – Or numerous), because he poured out his life unto death, and was numbered with the transgressors. For he bore the sin of many (Heb. rab), and made intercession for the transgressors (NIV Is. 53:11-12) .1 “Sing, O barren woman (Zion, cf. Is. 54:11 – “the afflicted city”), you who never bore a child; burst into song, shout for joy, you who were never in labor; because more are the children  (Heb. bane – “sons” – YLT “sons” – i.e. Israel the firstborn son (saved Jews) and other redeemed “sons” from the nations) of the desolate woman than of her who has a husband,” says the Lord. 2 “Enlarge the place of your tent, stretch your tent curtains wide, do not hold back; lengthen your cords, strengthen your stakes. 3 For you will spread out to the right and to the left; your descendants will dispossess nations and settle in their desolate cities. (NIV Is. 53:11-54:3)

  • 1 He has set his foundation on the holy mountain; 2 the Lord loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob. 3Glorious things are said of you, O city of God: 4 “I will record Rahaband Babylon among those who acknowledge me— Philistia too, and Tyre, along with Cush— and will say, ‘This one was born in Zion.’ ” 5 Indeed, of Zion it will be said, “This one and that one were born in her, and the Most High himself will establish her.” 6The Lord will write in the register of the peoples: “This one was born in Zion.” 7As they make music they will sing, “All my fountains (fountains of life, cf. Ps. 36:9) are in you.” (NIVPsalm 87)
  • 18 I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which he has called you, the riches of his glorious inheritance in the saints (NIV Eph. 1:18)
  • 17 Now if we are children, then we are heirs—heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory (NIV Rom. 8:16-17)
  • 13 And you also (Gentiles) were included in Christ when you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation. Having believed, you were marked in him with a seal, the promised Holy Spirit, 14 who is a deposit guaranteeing our inheritance until the redemption of those who are God’s possession—to the praise of his glory. (NIV Eph. 1:13-14)

25 I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery (the gap between the two 3.5 year halves was part of the mystery, that the Gentiles could be included in the “Jubilee” of the 70 weeks), brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number (ESV/NKJV – “fullness”) of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. 27 And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.” (NIV Rom. 11:25-27)

25 Now to him who is able to establish you by my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery hidden for long ages past, 26 but now revealed and made known through the prophetic writings (e.g. Is. 49, 53-54; Dan. 9:27) by the command of the eternal God, so that all nations might believe and obey him27 to the only wise God be glory forever through Jesus Christ! Amen. (NIV Rom. 16:25-27)

4 …the mystery of Christ, 5 which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to God’s holy apostles and prophets. 6 This mystery is that through the gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus. (NIVEph. 3:4-6)

6 So when they met together, they asked him, “Lord, are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?” 7 He said to them: “It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.” (NIVAc. 1:6-7)

45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. 46 He told them, “This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, 47 and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. (NIV Lk. 24:45-47)

12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men (i.e. both Jew and Gentile), because all sinned13 for before the law was given, sin was in the world (sin a universal problem, so all nations need to be redeemed). But sin is not taken into account when there is no law (therefore, God gave Israel the Law). 14 Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was a pattern of the one to come. 15 But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many (nations) died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God’s grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many (nations)! (NIVRom. 15:12-15)

  1. I favor the second line of interpretation for several reasons: 1) Option two does not require an abrupt (and to me seemingly arbitrary) switch from the work of the Messiah in Dan. 9:25-26a, to work of the Anti-Christ, in Dan. 9:26b-9:27. 2) Daniel 9:27’s mention of a “strong” or “firm” covenant doesn’t seem to correspond naturally with a false peace treaty that is quickly broken just 3.5 years later; 3) Though desolate implies destruction, equally painful is the fact that Jerusalem has been emptied of her sons. 4) The covenant is made with “many” (not just Israel); 5) The number of Scriptures that can easily be called on in support of option 2, in contrast to option 1; 6) There is not a single place in the New Testament where a false peace treaty with Israel is explicitly mentioned as a major sign of the last generation; 7) Theodotion’s translation, which pre-dates the Masoretic Text by several centuries. Whether Theodotion was translating the Hebrew text directly, or whether he was simply revising the Old Greek LXX to bring it more in line with the text tradition on which the later Masoretic text was based; either way it is clear that he interpreted the Hebrew consonants differently than the Masorites (as “with,” not “people”). All of this in my mind lends great credibility to the emendation (reconstruction based on the original consonants) above, which in turn lends more weight to option 2; 8) Option two provides for me a more satisfying explanation for the gap between the two 3.5 year segments (one that is backed-up by many Scriptures and accords with God’s heart of mercy): the gospel going forth to the nations during Jerusalem’s bereavement and desolation.



  1. What about the last 3.5 years? – Daniel 12

1“At that time Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise (Heb. “amad (763c); a prim. root; to take one’s stand, stand”[1]). There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But (NKJV/NASB/KJV – “and”) at that time your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered (cf. Rev. 10, 12). 2 Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 Those who are wisewill shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever. 4 But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge.” 5 Then I, Daniel, looked, and there before me stood two others, one on this bank of the river and one on the opposite bank. 6 One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, “How long will it be before these astonishing things (vv. 1-3) are fulfilled?” 7 The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, lifted his right hand and his left hand toward heaven (cf. Rev. 10), and I heard him swear by him who lives forever, saying, “It will be for a time, times and half a time (NIV note – Or a year, two years, and half a year). When the power of the holy people has been finally broken, all these things will be completed.” 8 I heard, but I did not understand. So I asked, “My lord, what will the outcome of all this be?” 9 He replied, “Go your way, Daniel, because the words are closed up and sealed until the time of the end. 10 Many will be purified, made spotless and refined, but the wicked will continue to be wicked. None of the wicked will understand, but those who are wise will understand. 11 “From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up (Heb. nawthan – alternate translations – “given,” “appointed,” “placed”[2]; YLT – “the giving out of the desolating abomination”), there will be 1,290 days. 12 Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1,335 days. 13 “As for you, go your way till the end. You will rest, and then at the end of the days you will rise to receive your allotted inheritance.”  (NIV Dan. 12:1-13)

5 And she gave birth to a male son, who is to “shepherd” all the nations “with a rod of iron.” And her child was taken up to God and His throne. 6 And the woman escaped into the wilderness where she has a place there, having been prepared from God, so that they (a – see Warner note a below) may be nourishing her there a thousand two hundred sixty days.7 And there was war in heaven. Michael and his messengers fought the dragon, and the dragon fought and his messengers…(Tim Warner Rev. 12:5-6).

Tim Warner commentary – (a) “The context seems to imply a connection to Michael and his angels in verse 7. Psalm 78:24-25 refers to the manna in the wilderness as “angel’s food.” Psalm 91, which is a prophecy about this event, says God will “give his angels charge over you.” Daniel 12:1 refers to the “time of trouble,” and says that Michael will “stand up” and God’s people will be “delivered.” Finally, Hebrews 1 refers to Christ’s Kingdom, and says the angels are “ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who are about to inherit salvation” (Heb.1:14). Therefore, the protection and provision of the redeemed during the 1260 days will be the responsibility of Michael and his angels.”[3]

[1]Thomas, R. L. (1998, 1981). New American Standard Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek dictionaries : Updated edition (H5975). Anaheim: Foundation Publications, Inc.

[2] Swanson, J. (1997). Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains : Hebrew (Old Testament) (electronic ed.) (DBLH 5989, #7). Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc.

[3] Tim Warner, translation of Revelation, <>



  1. However, even if Daniel 9:27 itself is not referring to a peace treaty with Israel, it is worth mentioning that there are other passages that indicate that Israel will experience a measure of peace before the Anti-Christ comes to power. Other passages indicate that this “peace” or false sense of security will be based on Israel making treaties with Gentile nations as she has done in the past. What is not known from these passages is exactly when Israel enters into that pact. It may in fact turn out to be 3.5 years before the final 3.5, even if this isn’t what Daniel 9:27 is saying. Only time will tell.

28 They are a nation without sense, there is no discernment in them. 29 If only they were wise and would understand this and discern what their end will be! 30 How could one man chase a thousand, or two put ten thousand to flight, unless their Rock had sold them, unless the Lord had given them up? 31 For their rock is not like our Rock, as even our enemies concede. 32 Their vine comes from the vine of Sodom and from the fields of Gomorrah. Their grapes are filled with poison, and their clusters with bitterness. 33 Their wine is the venom of serpents, the deadly poison of cobras. 34 “Have I not kept this in reserve and sealed it in my vaults? 35 It is mine to avenge; I will repay. In due time their foot will slip; their day of disaster is near and their doom rushes upon them.” 36 The Lord will judge his people and have compassion on his servants when he sees their strength is gone and no one is left, slave or free. 37 He will say: “Now where are their gods, the rock they took refuge in, 38 the gods who ate the fat of their sacrifices and drank the wine of their drink offerings? Let them rise up to help you! Let them give you shelter! 39 “See now that I myself am He! There is no god besides me. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand. 40 I lift my hand to heaven and declare: As surely as I live forever, 41 when I sharpen my flashing sword and my hand grasps it in judgment, I will take vengeance on my adversaries and repay those who hate me. 42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood, while my sword devours flesh: the blood of the slain and the captives, the heads of the enemy leaders.” 43 Rejoice, O nations, with his people,for he will avenge the blood of his servants; he will take vengeance on his enemies and make atonement for his land and people. (NIVDeut. 32:28-43)

9 The coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders (cf. Dan. 8:12, 23-24; Dan. 8:23 says he understands chidah (Heb.) – i.e. dark sayings/ hidden sayings/enigmas/riddles/ secrets, etc.; used of true prophets in Num. 12:8; i.e. he comes to power in accordance with witchcraft and false prophecy, cf. Rev. 2:24, Rev. 13:13-18), 10 and with all unrighteous deception (cf. Dan. 8:25 – “he will cause deceit to prosper,” NIV) among those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth (Dan. 8:12 – “truth was thrown to the ground,” NIV), that they might be saved. 11 And for this reason God will send them strong delusion, that they should believe the lie (cf. Is. 28:15 LXX; i.e. that there is security and refuge in making a covenant with idolatrous nations, in this case the Anti-Christ; cf. Deut. 32), 12 that they all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness. (NKJV2 Th. 2:9-12)

  • 14 Therefore hear the word of the Lord, you scoffers who rule this people in Jerusalem. 15 You boast (false confidence),“We have entered into a covenant with death, with the grave (Heb. Sheol) we have made an agreement. When an overwhelming (NKJV/KJV – “overflowing”) scourge (Gentile armies being used as scourge of disciple) sweeps by, it cannot touch us, for we have made a lie (LXX – “the lie” – same exact phrase as 2 Th. 2:11) our refuge and falsehood (NIV note – Or false gods) our hiding place” (“the lie” in this context means that they think they will escape the invading armies because they have entered into covenant with the surrounding nations, and by implication their gods; turning to the nations for refuge, instead of the God of Israel). 16 So this is what the Sovereign Lord says: “See, I lay a stone in Zion, a tested stone (the crucified Messiah), a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation; the one who trusts will never be dismayed. 17 I will make justice the measuring line and righteousness the plumb line; (cf. 2 Th. 2:12 – did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness”; i.e. the standard of evaluation, cf. Ezek. 20:35-38) hail will sweep away your refuge, the lie, and water will overflow (flood of Gentile armies) your hiding place. 18 Your covenant with death will be annulled; your agreement with the grave will not stand (i.e. those nations in whom Israel trusted and looked to for support now turn their back on her, cf. Hos. 2; God exposing the motives of these natinons). When the overwhelming  (KJV/NKJV – “overflowing”) scourge sweeps by, you will be beaten down by it. 19As often as it comes it will carry you away; morning after morning, by day and by night, it will sweep through.” The understanding of this message will bring sheer terror. (NIVIs. 28:14-19)

7 “ ‘Get ready; be prepared, you (Gog – the Anti-Christ) and all the hordes gathered about you, and take command of them. 8 After many days (end of the age) you will be called to arms. In future years you will invade a land that has recovered from war, whose people were gathered from many nations to the mountains of Israel, which had long been desolate (of her sons). They had been brought out from the nations, and now all of them live in safety. 9 You and all your troops and the many nations with you will go up, advancing like a storm; you will be like a cloud covering the land. 10 “ ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: On that day thoughts will come into your mind and you will devise an evil scheme. 11 You will say, “I will invade a land of unwalled villages; I will attack a peaceful and unsuspecting people—all of them living without walls and without gates and bars. 12 I will plunder and loot and turn my hand against the resettled ruins and the people gathered from the nations, rich in livestock and goods, living at the center of the land.” …3917 “Son of man, this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Call out to every kind of bird and all the wild animals: ‘Assemble and come together from all around to the sacrifice I am preparing for you, the great sacrifice on the mountains of Israel (cf. Rev. 19:17-21). There you will eat flesh and drink blood. 18 You will eat the flesh of mighty men and drink the blood of the princes of the earth as if they were rams and lambs, goats and bulls—all of them fattened animals from Bashan. 19 At the sacrifice I am preparing for you, you will eat fat till you are glutted and drink blood till you are drunk. 20 At my table you will eat your fill of horses and riders, mighty men and soldiers of every kind,’ declares the Sovereign Lord. 21 “I will display my glory among the nations, and all the nations will see the punishment I inflict and the hand I lay upon them. 22 From that day forward the house of Israel will know that I am the Lord their God (this clearly indicates that this is not after the millennium). 23 And the nations will know that the people of Israel went into exile for their sin, because they were unfaithful to me. So I hid my face from them and handed them over to their enemies, and they all fell by the sword. 24 I dealt with them according to their uncleanness and their offenses, and I hid my face from them. 25 “Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: I will now bring Jacob back from captivity and will have compassion on all the people of Israel, and I will be zealous for my holy name. 26 They will forget their shame and all the unfaithfulness they showed toward me when they lived in safety in their land with no one to make them afraid. 27 When I have brought them back from the nations and have gathered them from the countries of their enemies, I will show myself holy through them in the sight of many nations. 28 Then they will know that I am the Lord their God, for though I sent them into exile among the nations, I will gather them to their own land, not leaving any behind. 29 I will no longer hide my face from them, for I will pour out my Spirit on the house of Israel, declares the Sovereign Lord.” (NIVEzek. 38:7-12, 39:17-29)

Tim Miller (124 Posts)

Tim is founder of the Daniel Training Network. His passion is to see followers of Christ embrace a life of the cross. He, his wife Emily, and their four children itinerate regularly as part of their ministry, and are presently living in New Mexico.

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