9b – The Age Of Colonialism: 1800-1900 AD

Notes Outline


    1. Urban Revivals
      1. In the footsteps of the urban revivals of Charles Finney in the 1830s, the New York Prayer Meeting Revival, or Fulton Street Revival, of 1857-58 ushered in a new era of Western evangelicalism, setting a new tone and atmosphere for urban missions and evangelism.
        1. In September 1857, Jeremiah Lamphier, a quiet, yet zealous 46-year-old businessman (who had been converted in 1842 in Finney’s Broadway Tabernacle), began holding weekly noontime prayer meetings for fellow businessmen in downtown New York.
        2. Within a few weeks, they began to meet daily, and by March they had outgrown two churches and had to move into a nearby theatre.  By the summer of 1858, noontime prayer meetings were held throughout New York City, and by the end of the year they had swept across America, accounting for over one million converts (out of ~30 million American population).
      2. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)
        1. Established in London, England in 1844 by George Williams, a 22-year-old sales assistant in a draper’s shop, the YMCA originally sought to substitute prayer and Bible study for a life on the streets for young men moving to newly industrialized areas.  With an intense focus on saving souls, this was primarily accomplished through saloon and street corner preaching; then boarding houses, lectures, libraries and meeting halls would be rented out for discipleship.
        2. Small groups rapidly spread throughout urban England, then to Canada and America.  After the Civil War, the locus of the YMCA shifted to America where Dwight Moody and John Mott mobilized the YMCA as the primary recruiting pool from which missionaries were sent out during the Student Volunteer Movement (c.1886-1928).
      3. William Booth (1829-1912) – Though a prominent Methodist evangelist, Booth resigned and founded The Christian Mission in 1865, so that he could minister directly to the poor on the East End of London.  The Mission grew slowly at first, but began to multiply after its name was changed to The Salvation Army in 1878.  By his death in 1912, the Army was established in urban centers in 58 countries.
      4. Dwight L. Moody (1837-99)
        1. Considered by many to be the greatest evangelist of the 19th century, Moody was born a seventh generation Puritan in Northfield, MA and was converted at the newly established YMCA in Boston in 1855.  After working with the YMCA during the Civil War, Moody started a church and became president of the YMCA in Chicago.  After a spiritual awakening in 1871, Moody led several crusades with Ira Sankey in conjunction with the YMCA in England, Scotland and Ireland (1872-75), where he drew huge crowds (several million total).
        2. Upon returning to America, he continued to hold large evangelistic meetings across the East Coast.  Moving back to Northfield, MA, Moody established the Mount Hermon School for Young Men in 1881 where he began holding summer bible conferences.  In 1886, he started the Bible Institute for Home and Foreign Missions (later renamed the Moody Bible Institute) and continued crusades and campaigns until his death in 1899 (ministering to an estimated 100 million+).
    2. Student Volunteer Movement (c.1886-1928)
      1. In 1877, the YMCA formally organized a college division and appointed Luther Wishard to direct the work.  After hearing of the Samuel Mills and the Haystack Prayer Meeting and traveling to Williams College in 1878, Wishard committed himself and the YMCA to an aggressive emphasis on the Great Commission.
      2. In conjunction with Wishard, Dwight Moody issued a call in 1886 to all the collegiate YMCAs in the U.S. to come to his annual student conference in Northfield.  The 26 day conference (attended by 250 men from 96 colleges) was concluded with a call for foreign mission service, and 100 young men had become “volunteers”.
      3. Wishard appointed Robert Wilder and John Forman to tour North American colleges and university campuses (167 total) during the academic year 1886-1887.  By the end of the year more than 2100 young men and women had volunteered for missionary service, and after the 1888 Northfield Conference (where Hudson Taylor spoke), John R. Mott (one of the original Mt. Hermon 100) formally organized as the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions (SVM), serving the campus department of the YMCA.
      4. With its infamous watchword, “the evangelization of the world in this generation,” the SVM continued to grow, and in 1895 Mott was commissioned by the American Intercollegiate YMCA to enter into negotiations with national student movements overseas regarding an international student organization, which was then formed in August as the World Student Christian Federation.
      5. The Federation ultimately functioned as a worldwide missions recruiting agency that fed the major missions boards of Europe and America, culminating in the World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh, Scotland in 1910.  Over 100,000 students participated in the SVM, and more than 20,000 went overseas to spread the gospel.


    1. Introduction
      1. As latent Protestant missionary zeal came to a head at the end of the 18th century, the establishment of the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792 by William Carey opened the floodgates for missionary structures throughout Europe and America:
        1. London Missionary Society (1795)
        2. Scottish Missionary Society (1796)
        3. Netherlands Missionary Society (1797)
        4. Church Missionary Society (1799)
        5. Rhenish Missionary Society (1799)
        6. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1810)
        7. Wesleyan Missionary Society (1813)
        8. American Baptist Missionary Board (1814)
        9. The Basel Society (1815) 
        10. United Foreign Mission Society (1817)
        11. The Berlin Society (1824)
      2. These and hundreds of other smaller missionary societies sprung up during the early 1800s, all of which arose on the periphery of the ecclesial organization because the Church had no place for missions in their structure.  
      3. Normally these mission societies were led by laypersons and clergy who had been influenced by the Evangelical revivals.  Thus, the mainline Church generally remained uninterested in the new missionary fervor.
      4. The advance of the missionary societies also opened the doors for a plethora of “voluntary societies,” which were usually organized by lay persons for the accomplishment of a specific goal, e.g. Religious Tract Society (1799), British and Foreign Bible Society (1804), etc.
    2. Asia
      1. India
        1. William Carey (1761-1834)
          1. Self taught preacher, who learned Greek, Latin and Hebrew.  Schoolmaster and cobbler, fascinated with captain Cook’s travels and regularly read Moravian missionary reports and pamphlets.
          2. In 1792 published An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathen.”  Formed the Particular Baptist Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Heathen in the same year.  Paid his own way to India, against the hostility of the British East India Company.
          3. Sailed June 13, 1793, Landed in Hooghly, E. India (11.11.1793) > inland to avoid deportation by East India Co.  Spent 41 years in India.  Joshua Marshman & William Ward arrive at Serampore (1799), Carey persuaded to join.
          4. Studied Bengalese and Sanskrit, translated parts or all of the Bible into 24 languages, established Serampore College (1818).  Though his first convert did not come for seven years, there were around 420 believers in Serampore and 16 missionary centers in India by the time of his death.
        2. Henry Martyn (1781-1812) – most notable of ‘pious chaplains’, Senior Wrangler at Cambridge, Calcutta (1806) > translation at Serampore, philologically trained, NT in Urdu in 7yrs.
      2. China
        1. Robert Morrison (1782-1834) – First Protestant missionary to China, arrived in Canton (1807), translator for East India Co. (1809), NT (1813), OT (1819), 1st convert, Tsae A-Ko (1814), 11 total converts.  Established Anglo-Chinese College in Malacca (1818).
        2. All missionaries from Evangelical revivals.  First Opium War (1839-42) – War between Britain and China over opium ended with the treaty of Nanking (1842) > ‘treaty ports’ and privileges to foreigners.
        3. Hudson Taylor (1832-1905)
          1. As a teenager, Taylor heard from Heaven, “Go for Me to China.” China Inland Mission born on the Brington’s beach (asked God for 24 missionaries to return with him to China).  Bank account with $50, Spurgeon heard Taylor and was impressed by his zeal, within the year, $13,000 and 24 volunteers.  Pioneered the Faith Mission society, hundreds followed suite.  At his death, 205 stations with 849 missionaries, and 125K Chinese Christians in CIM.
          2. “What! For hundreds of years you have had these glad tidings and only now have come to preach it to us? My father sought after the truth for more than twenty years, and died without finding it. Oh, why did you not come sooner?” — leading officer of a sect of reformed Buddhism.
        4. C. T. Studd (1860-1931) – The Cambridge Seven, “Some want to live within the sound of church or chapel bell; I want to run a rescue shop within a yard of hell.”
        5. Boxer Rebellion (6.24.1900) – imperial decree ordering the killing of all foreigners, ~200 missionaries killed, rebellion crushed by August, ordered to make compensation, CIM took nothing.
      3. Korea – first missionary to Korean in 1865, John L. Nevius (1890) indigenized church, first converts (1886), 236 by 1894, 30K by 1910, massive revival in 1906.
      4. Indo-China – Christian and Missionary Alliance in late 19th century, Swiss missionaries in Laos (1902), others in Vietnam and Cambodia (1911).
      5. Thailand – American field, Congregationalists (1831), Baptists (1833), Presbyterians (1840).  Fiercely anti-foreign attitude.
      6. Burma
        1. Mts, valleys, jungles; vigorous Buddhism, 6 million non-Buddhists more receptive.
        2. Adoniram Judson (1788-1850) – Sent by ABCFM to India, became Baptist in Calcutta, arrived in Burma in 1813.  Preached in a zayat in Rangoon, 6 yrs before 1st convert, translated NT.  Moved to capital, Ava, incarcerated 17 months during 1st Anglo-Burmese war, wife Ann died after the war, whole Burmese Bible in 1834.  Mass movement, Baptist country – 10K church members, 30K Christians in 1851.
      7. Malaysia – British dominance, jumping off point for China, dwindled to nothing by mid-1800’s.
      8. Indonesia
        1. Netherlands M.S. (NMS) worked in North Celebes > whole population Christianized.
        2. Johannes Emde – German watchmaker settled in Surabaya (1811), married a Javanese woman, won 35 Muslims by 1843; Coenraad Laurens Coolen – Javanese mother, used indigenous Javanese methods of proclamation.
        3. J.E. Jellesma – arrived in East Java (1849), worked form Modjowarno (East Javanese Church), lay evangelists won most Muslims in the world.
        4. Borneo – Francis Thomas McDougall sent by Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) in 1847, lost 5 children, converts slow (5 by 1851), bishop of Labuan (1855).
        5. 52 in 1866, 2K in 1876, 7500 in 1881, 103K in 1911.
      9. Philippines
    3. Australasia
      1. Australia
      2. New Zealand – Samuel Marsden: Anglican chaplain (CMS) in Sydney, arrived in 1814, first baptism in 1825, British sovereignty declared (1840), whole island quickly converted.
      3. New Guinea – intensely difficult area; first missionaries to Irian Jaya in 1861, known for more missionary graves than missionaries, only 20 converts at 25 yrs.
      4. Tahiti 
        1. LMS sent first missionaries in 1796 (also to Tonga), murdered.  King Pomare sternly resistant, son repented in 1812, baptized before 4000 subjects in 1819.  Complete Tahitian Bible translated (1838), French domination after 1843 (LMS replaced by Paris Society for E.M.).
        2. John Williams (1796-1839) – Congregationalist sent by LMS (1817), worked in Raiatea and Rarotonga, trained and placed ‘native teachers’ on every island, by 1834 all islands within 2000 miles of Tahiti visited .
      5. Samoa – John Williams (1830) left 8 teachers, population Christianized within one generation.
      6. Melanesia– most resistant to gospel, John Williams set 3 Samoan teachers in 1839, cannibalized in the same year.
      7. Tonga – John Thomas (1796-1881) – Methodist blacksmith from Worcestershire, worked 25 yrs, rapid progress after conversion of chief Taufaahau (d.1893) of Haabai, king of whole Tonga in 1839.
      8. Fiji – ‘Brutal and ferocious darkness’, Tongans arrived in 1823, Methodists arrived in 1835, little progress until revival in 1845, chief Thakombau baptized (1854), power encounters.
      9. Hawaii – Titus Coan (1835-1881), 20 missionaries sent by American Board, arrived in 1820, preceded by someone, revival broke out (1839-41, 20K+ of 100K pop.), Hawaiians later died out to Japanese.
    4. Middle East
      1. Turkey – William Goodell (1792-1867): sent by American Board in 1831, settled in Constantinople, work extended to Asia Minor and Armenia, new denomination by 1846.
      2. Syria – American Board in Beirut in 1823 followed by American Presbyterians, Bible translated into Arabic, Syrian Protestant College > American Univ. of Beirut (1920).
      3. Iran – Henry Martyn stayed one year (1811); Swiss missionaries from Basil Mission settles in Tabriz (1813); American Board in Urmia (1835).
    5. Africa
      1. Known as “Black Africa,” during the height of the SVM people packed their belongings in coffins, life expectancy less than 2yrs, “The White Man’s Graveyard.”
      2. North Africa – Egypt and the Nile, Libya, Algeria, Morocco > interdenominational North African Mission.
      3. West Africa – Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire (Congo)
        1. Sierra Leone – home of freed slaves (50K by 1846), 117 languages > Creole as lingua franca.  CMS sent German missionaries in 1804 followed by the Methodists in 1811, great loss of life.
        2. Ghana (Gold Coast) – Basil Mission first to enter in 1828, 9 missionaries in 10 yrs.  Thomas Birch Freeman (1809-90) – English Methodist (African father), iron constitution, stressed lay witness, steady growth (1838-44).
        3. Nigeria – most populous of African nations, British occupation of Lagos (1851), freed slaves from Sierra Leone called for missionaries, Anglicans and Methodists responded.
          1. Henry Townsend first arrived in 1842, returned in 1844 with Samuel Crowther, mission among the Yoruba people.  David Hinderer established a station at Ibadan.
          2. Methodists under T.B. Freedman arrived at Abeokuta; Scottish Presbyterians under Hope Waddell (previously in Jamaica) began a mission at Calabar.
      4. South Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Angola
        1. John Theodore Vandrkemp (d.1811) – Dutch physician with LMS, arrived in Cape Town in 1799, worked among Hottentots, city of refuge at Bethelsdorp, married an African.
        2. John Philip – arrived in 1820 at 44, appointed superintendent of LMS missions in S.Africa (1820-1853), fought for African rights.
        3. Robert Moffat (1795-1883) – sent by LMS at 21 (1816), worked among the Bechuana at Kuruman for 48 yrs, mastered Tswana language, revival broke out (1829), Bible translated (1857), methods increasingly patriarchal.
        4. David Livingstone (1813-73) – Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls.  Son-in-law of Moffat, poor Scotsman, arrived in 1841, drawn by ‘the smoke of a thousand villages’, 1st journey from Angola to Quilimane, opened the heart of Africa, fought slave trade, Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (1857)—“Cannot the love of Christ carry the missionary where the slave trade carries the trader?”
      5. East Africa – Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania > Notoriously difficult, Henry Stanley.
      6. Madagascar – LMS began in 1818, David Jones reached the capital, Antananarivo in 1820, contact with King Radama who called for missionaries, 28 converts baptized in 1831, NT in Malagasy.  Christians multiplied 4 times during violent persecution from 1835 to 1861.
    6. South America – Brazil, Columbia, Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Argentina
    7. North America – Canada, Alaska, Greenland
    8. Roman Catholic
      1. Asia Thailand, Burma, Malaya, Indonesia
      2. Australasia – New Caledonia, Tonga, New Guinea, Tahiti-Samoa-Fiji
      3. Africa – Charles Lavigerie (1825-92), founded the White Fathers (1868), fought feverously against the slave trade, bishop of Nancy, Algeria, head of the RCC in N.A., gathered over 1800 orphans and raised them as Christians, regarded Africa as “the open port of entry to a barbaric continent with 200 million inhabitants.”
    9. Eastern Orthodox
      1. Introduction – Loss of establishment; competition; apostasy… Old techniques of governmental pressure without theological base could produce only nominal Christians; Piety and self-consciousness – a rediscovery of the Orthodox tradition.
      2. Russia – Makary Glucharev (1792-1869)
      3. Alaska – John Veniaminov (1797-1879)
      4. Japan – Nikolai Kasatkin (1836-1912)