Jewish Expectations of the Age to Come Part 2

Notes Outline


The LORD has established his throne in the heavens, andhis kingdom rules over all. (ESVPsalm 103:19)

Then comes the end,when he delivers the kingdom to God the Fatherafter destroying every rule and every authority and power.25For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. (ESV1 Corinthians 15:24-25)


1God’s “kingdom” is referenced throughout the Old and New Testaments, and it is clearly a kingdom thatpresentlyrules overall creation(cf. 1 Chron. 29:11; Ps. 103:19; 145:11ff; Jer. 10:7ff; Dan. 4:3, 34; Jn. 19:11; Acts 17:24; Rev. 4:2ff). However, there are also many messianic references to aneschatologicalkingdom that is establishedon the earth(cf. Ps. 2:6ff; Is. 9:7; Dan. 2:44; 7:14; Mt. 8:11; 20:21; Lk. 22:30; 2 Pe. 1:11; Rev. 11:15). This distinction has been the source of much controversy, which is simply solved by distinguishing between the two primary thrones of creation: one in the height of the heavens (cf. Ps. 2:4; 113:5; Is. 40:22; 66:1) and one delegated to man on the earth (cf. Gen. 1:26ff; Ps. 8:4ff; 115:16). Thus, when referencing the “kingdom”, we need to delineate between the “universal kingdom”, ruling over all creation from everlasting to everlasting, and the “messianic kingdom”, to be established upon the earth at the end of the age restoring the original Adamic order. However, the particular phrase, “Kingdom of God,” which only occurs in the New Testament, needs to be understood as Jewish phraseology used during late Second Temple Judaism to refer specifically to the Messianic Kingdom. This was clearly the common Jewish expectation, and it is the plain meaning of the phrase in thevast majorityof its usage.


In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence.14He was given authority, glory and sovereign power;all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed. (NIVDaniel 7:13)

Sing to the LORD a new song, for he has done marvelous things;his right hand and his holy armhave worked salvation for him.2The LORD has made his salvation known and revealed his righteousnessto the nations.3He has remembered his love and his faithfulnessto the house of Israel; all the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God.4Shout for joy to the LORD,all the earth, burst into jubilant song with music…8Let the rivers clap their hands, let the mountains sing together for joy;9let them sing before the LORD, for he comes to judge the earth. He will judge the world in righteousness andthe peopleswith equity. (NIVPsalm 98:1-9)

When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit on his throne in heavenly glory.32All the nationswill be gathered before him, and he will separate the people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats…34Then the King will say to those on his right, “Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance,the kingdomprepared for you since the creation of the world.” (NIVMatthew 25:31-34)

Then the seventh angel sounded: and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!” (NKJVRevelation 11:15)



Arise, shine, for your light has come, and the glory of the LORD has risen upon you.2For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and thick darkness the peoples; but the LORD will arise upon you, and his glory will be seen upon you.3Andnations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising…11Your gates shall be open continually; day and night they shall not be shut,that people may bring to you the wealth of the nations, with their kings led in procession.12For the nation and kingdom that will not serve you shall perish; those nations shall be utterly laid waste…15Whereas you have been forsaken and hated, with no one passing through, I will make you majestic forever, a joy from age to age.16You shall suck the milk of nations; you shall nurse at the breast of kings; and you shall know that I, the LORD, am your Savior and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob. (ESVIsaiah 60:1-16)

Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem! See,your king comes to you, righteous and having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey…10He will proclaim peaceto the nations. His rule will extendfrom sea to sea and from the River to the ends of the earth. (NIVZechariah 9:9-10)


So also the chief priests with the scribes mocked him to one another, saying, “He saved others; he cannot save himself.32Let the Christ,the King of Israel, come down now from the cross that we may see and believe.” (ESVMark 15:31-32)

You are those who have stood by Me in My trials;29and just as My Father has granted Mea kingdom, I grant you30that you may eat and drink at My table inMy kingdom, and you will sit on thrones judgingthe twelve tribes of Israel. (NASBLuke 22:25-30)

He appeared to them over a period of forty days and spokeabout the kingdom of God6So when they met together, they asked him, “Lord, are you at this time going torestore the kingdom to Israel?” (NIVActs 1:3-6)

A.Messianic Birthright/Primogeniture

I have made a covenant with My chosen; I have sworn to David My servant,4I will establish your seed foreverand build up your throne to all generations…23I shall crush his adversaries before him, and strike those who hate him.24My faithfulness and My lovingkindness will be with him, and in My name his horn will be exalted.25I shall also set his hand on the sea and his right hand on the rivers.26He will cry to Me, “You are my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation.”27I also shall make himMy firstborn[cf. “inheritance rights as the oldest son” Heb. 12:16], the highest of the kings of the earth. (NASBPsalm 89:3-27)

Endow the king with your justice, O God,the royal sonwith your righteousness…8He will rule from sea to sea andfrom the River to the ends of the earth17May his name endure forever; may it continue as long as the sun.All nations will be blessed through him, and they will call him blessed.18Praise be to the LORD God,the God of Israel, who alone does marvelous deeds.19Praise be to his glorious name forever; maythe whole earth be filled with his glory. (NIVPsalm 72:1-19)

A shoot will come upfrom the stump of Jesse; from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.2The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him…9They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain, forthe earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORDas the waters cover the sea.10In that day the Root of Jesse will stand as a bannerfor the peoples; the nations will rally to him, and his place of rest will be glorious…12He will raise a bannerfor the nations andgather the exiles of Israel; he will assemble the scattered people of Judah from the four quarters of the earth. (NIVIsaiah 11:1-12)

He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.16For by Him all things were created,bothin the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. (NASBCol. 1:15-16)

B.Jewish Birthright/Primogeniture

Then you shall say to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD,Israel is my firstborn son,23and I say to you, “Let my son go that he may serve me.” If you refuse to let him go, behold, I will killyour firstborn son.'” (ESVExodus 4:22-23)

With weeping they shall come, and with pleas for mercy I will lead them back, I will make them walk by brooks of water, in a straight path in which they shall not stumble, forI am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn[cf. Ps. Sol. 13:9; 18:4; Sirach 36:17; and 4 Esdras 6:58]. (ESVJeremiah 31:9)

There will be trouble and distress for every human being who does evil:first for the Jew, then for the Gentile; but glory, honor and peace for everyone who does good:first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. For God does not show favoritism. (NIVRom. 2:9-11)

It wasnecessarythat the word of God be spokenfirst to you. Since you thrust it aside and judge yourselves unworthy of eternal life, behold, we are turningto the Gentiles. (ESVActs 13:46)

Is God the God of Jews only?Is he not the God of Gentiles too? Yes, of Gentiles too,30since there is only one God, who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through that same faith. (NIVRomans 3:29-30)

As regards the gospel, they are enemies of God for your sake. But as regards election, they are beloved for the sake of their forefathers.29For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. (ESVRomans 11:28-29)


You will arise and have compassionon Zion, for it is time to show favor to her; the appointed time has come.14For her stones are dear to your servants; her very dust moves them to pity.15The nations will fear the name of the LORD, all the kings of the earth will revere your glory.16For the LORD willrebuild Zionand appear in his glory…21So the name of the LORD will be declaredin Zionand his praisein Jerusalem22when the peoples and the kingdoms assemble to worship the LORD. (NIVPsalm 102:11-22)

In that day the LORD will punish the powers in the heavens above and the kings on the earth below.22They will be herded together like prisoners bound in a dungeon; they will be shut up in prison and be punished after many days.23The moon will be abashed, the sun ashamed; for the LORD Almighty will reignon Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before its elders, gloriously. (NIVIsaiah 24:21-23)

Behold, I will createnew heavens and a new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind. But be glad and rejoice forever in what I will create, forI will createJerusalemto be a delight and its people a joy.I will rejoice over Jerusalemand take delight in my people; the sound of weeping and of crying will be heard in it no more. (NIVIsaiah 65:17-19)

But I say to you, Do not take an oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God,35or by the earth, for it is his footstool, or by Jerusalem,for it is the city of the great King. (ESVMatthew 5:34-35)


A.The Davidic Throne

When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you…13He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establishthe throne of his kingdom forever. (NIV2 Samuel 7:11-14)

For to us a child is born, to usa son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.7Of the increase of his government and of peace there will be no end,on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from this time forth and forevermore. (ESVIsaiah 9:6-7)

The LORD swore to David a sure oath from which he will not turn back: “One of the sons of your bodyI will set on your throne.12If your sons keep my covenant and my testimonies that I shall teach them, their sons also forevershall sit on your throne.”13For the LORD has chosen Zion; he has desired it for his dwelling place…17“ThereI will makea horn to sprout for David; I have prepared a lamp for my anointed.18His enemies I will clothe with shame, but on him his crown will shine.” (ESVPsalm 132:11-18)

In that dayI willrestore David’s fallen tent. I will repair its broken places, restore its ruins, and build itas it used to be, so that they may possess the remnant of Edom and all the nations that bear my name,” declares the LORD, who will do these things. (NIVAmos 9:11-12)

But the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, you have found favor with God.31You will be with child and give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus.32He will be great and will be calledthe Son of the Most High. The Lord God will give himthe throne of his father David,33and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever;his kingdom will never end.”(NIVLuke 1:30-33)

And those who went before and those who followed were shouting, “Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!10Blessed isthe coming kingdom of our father David!Hosanna in the highest!” (ESVMark 11:9-10)

B.The Messianic Temple

When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you…13He is the one who will builda house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. (NIV2 Samuel 7:11-14)

In the last days the mountainof the LORD’s templewill be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, andall nations will stream to it.3Many peoples will come and say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, tothe house of the God of Jacob. He will teach us his ways, so that we may walk in his paths.” The law will go outfrom Zion, the word of the LORDfrom Jerusalem.4He will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples. (NIVIsaiah 2:2-4)

As the glory of the LORD entered the temple by the gate facing east,5the Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court; and behold,the glory of the LORD filled the temple.6While the man was standing beside me, I heard one speaking to me out of the temple,7and he said to me, “Son of man,this is the place of my throneand the place of the soles of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the people of Israelforever. (ESVEzekiel 43:4-7)

Here is the man whose name isthe Branch, and he will branch out from his place andbuild the temple of the LORD.13It is he who will build the temple of the LORD, and he will be clothed with majesty and will sit and rule on his throne. And he will bea priest on his throne. And there will be harmony between the two. (NIVZechariah 6:12-13)

You have wearied the LORD… by asking, “Where is the God of justice?3:1Behold, I send my messenger and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord whom you seekwill suddenly come to his temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight, behold, he is coming, says the LORD of hosts.2But who can endurethe day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears? (ESVMalachi 2:17-3:2)

While he was blessing them, he left them and was taken up into heaven.52Then they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy.53And they stayedcontinually at the temple, praising God. (NIVLuke 24:51-53)


A.Universal Stewardship


Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. Andlet them have dominionover the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” (ESVGenesis 1:26)

For we will all stand beforethe judgment seat of God;11for it is written, “As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.”12So theneach of us will give an account of himself to God. (ESVRomans 14:10-12)

This is how one should regard us, as servants of Christ andstewards of the mysteries of God.2Moreover, it is required of stewards that they be found trustworthy.3But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you or by anyhuman court. In fact, I do not even judge myself.4I am not aware of anything against myself, but I am not thereby acquitted. It is the Lord who judges me.5Therefore do not pronounce judgmentbefore the time, before the Lord comes, who will bring to light the things now hidden in darkness and will disclose the purposes of the heart. Then each one will receive his commendation from God. (ESV1 Corinthians 4:1-5)

B.Jewish Stewardship


The land must not be sold permanently, becausethe land is mine and you are but aliens and my tenants.24Throughout the country that you hold as a possession, you must provide for the redemption of the land. (NIVLeviticus 25:23-24)

But who am I and who are my people that we should be able to offer as generously as this? For all things come from You, and from Your hand we have given You.15For we are sojourners before You, and tenants, as all our fathers were; our days on the earth are like a shadow, and there is no hope. (NASB1 Chronicles 29:14-15)

For thus says the LORD of hosts: Yet once more, in a little while, I will shake the heavens and the earth and the sea and the dry land.7And I will shake all nations, so that the treasures of all nations shall come in, andI will fill this house with glory, says the LORD of hosts.8The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, declares the LORD of hosts.9The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former, says the LORD of hosts. And in this place I will give peace, declares the LORD of hosts. (ESVHaggai 2:6-9)

There was a master of a house who planted a vineyard and put a fence around it and dug a winepress in it and built a tower andleased it to tenants, and went into another country.34When the season for fruit drew near, he sent his servantsto the tenantsto get his fruit…40When therefore the owner of the vineyard comes,what will he do to those tenants?”41They said to him, “He will put those wretches to a miserable death andlet out the vineyard to other tenantswho will give him the fruits in their seasons.” (ESVMatthew 21:33-41)

Then what advantage has the Jew? Or what is the value of circumcision?2Much in every way. To begin with,the Jews were entrusted with the oracles of God. (ESVRomans 3:1-2)

They are Israelites, andto them belongthe adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises.5To them belongthe patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen. (ESVRomans 9:4-5)

So I ask,have they stumbled so as to fall?By no means! But through their stumbling salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous. (NRSVRomans 11:11)