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11a – The Israelocentric Missiology Of The Church

Notes Outline
INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW
THE ISRAELOCENTRIC GOSPEL

INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW

Israel and the Nations, the Righteous and the Wicked

Pre-Acts Assembly was entirely Israelite, Post-Acts Assembly includes the nations.

 

A. In light of the age to come, the church is called to walk in the light and reflect the glory of God. And to this end, we pray unceasingly, asking God for mercy and grace to walk before him with perseverance as faithful witnesses, as Christ’s ambassadors.

And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing. 4 The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. 5 For we do not preach ourselves, but Jesus Christ as Lord, and ourselves as your servants for Jesus’ sake. 6 For God, who said, “Let light shine out of darkness,” made his light shine in our hearts to give us the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Christ. 7 But we have this treasure in jars of clay to show that this all-surpassing power is from God and not from us. 8 We are hard pressed on every side 13 It is written: “I believed; therefore I have spoken.” (cf. Ps. 116:10) With that same spirit of faith we also believe and therefore speak, 14 because we know that the one who raised the Lord Jesus from the dead will also raise us with Jesus and present us with you in his presence. 15 All this is for your benefit, so that the grace that is reaching more and more people may cause thanksgiving to overflow to the glory of God. (NIV 2 Corinthians 4:3-15)

B. This sojourner calling is lived out in a house church context, which best facilitates a faithful witness and the growth of spiritual families. Moreover, it encourages shrewdness toward power and wealth for the sake of loving the poor, honoring eldership, and sending out apostolic teams.

All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of his possessions was his own, but they shared everything they had. 33 With great power the apostles continued to testify to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and much grace was upon them all. 34 There were no needy persons among them. For from time to time those who owned lands or houses sold them, brought the money from the sales 35 and put it at the apostles’ feet, and it was distributed to anyone as he had need. (NIV Acts 4:32-35)

C. All of this is in context to the gospel of the kingdom, which is inherently “Israelocentric”. Therefore, the ministry of the church in this age is also Israelocentric, “to the Jew first, then the Gentile” (cf. Rom. 1:16; 2:9f). One’s missiological approach is mirrored by one’s understanding of the gospel, which has developed historically.

1. Eschatology

a) Covenantal “Replacement” Eschatology – according to the Platonic split in reality, Covenantalists assume the replacement of the Jewish plan of salvation (restoration of creation) with the Hellenistic plan of salvation (immaterial heavenly destiny).

b) Dispensational “Dualistic” Eschatology – similarly, the Dispensationalists assume the addition of the Hellenistic plan of salvation at the First Coming, resulting in two plans of salvation and two distinct eschatologies, one heavenly and one earthly.

c) Messianic “Redemptive” Eschatology – without the Platonic lens, the apostolic church held to a simple eschatology involving the restoration of creation. God will heal everything he created in the resurrection, and he will resolve the alienation of the nations in the kingdom, restoring the Jewish calling to be the “head of the nations” under the Messianic Head.

In the last days the mountain of the LORD’s temple will be established as chief among the mountains; it will be raised above the hills, and all nations will stream to it 3 The law will go out from Zion, the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4 He will judge between the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples. (NIV Isaiah 2:2-4)

He carried me away in the Spirit to a mountain great and high, and showed me the Holy City, Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God 12 It had a great, high wall with twelve gates, and with twelve angels at the gates. On the gates were written the names of the twelve tribes of Israel 24 The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it 26 The glory and honor of the nations will be brought into it. (NIV Revelation 21:10-26)

You have delivered me from the attacks of the people; you have made me the head of nations; people I did not know are subject to me 49 Therefore I will praise you among the nations, O LORD; I will sing praises to your name. (cf. Rom. 15:9) 50 He gives his king great victories; he shows unfailing kindness to his anointed, to David and his descendants forever. (NIV Psalm 18:43-50)

2. Missiology

a) Covenantal “Replacement” Missiology (Jew Or Gentile) – since the Jewish plan of salvation has been discarded or superseded, so also has the mandate in the offer of salvation been discarded. As there is homogeneity in the heavenly destiny, so also is there homogeneity in the missiological preference between Jew and Gentile.

b) Dispensational “Dualistic” Missiology (Jew And Gentile) – since there is the addition and equality of the Hellenistic plan of salvation, so also is there the equality in the missiological approach of the church. The church divides its mission to saving Gentile souls for their immaterial heavenly destiny, while providing material support for Israel to take over the world.

c) Messianic “Redemptive” Missiology (Jew Then Gentile) – as the “firstborn nation” (cf. Ex. 4:22; Jer. 31:9; Hos. 11:1), God is committed to the salvation and redemption of the descendants of Abraham. The church thus seeks the redemption of Jew first, then the Gentile. Moreover, as a firstfruits of the harmony and peace that the Messiah will establish between the nations in the age to come, the church seeks to exemplify and model that between Jew and Gentile in this age.

Again I ask: Did they stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all! Rather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the Gentiles to make Israel envious. 12 But if their transgression means riches for the world, and their loss means riches for the Gentiles, how much greater riches will their fullness bring! 13 I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I make much of my ministry 14 in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy and save some of them. 15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? 25 I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. 27 And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins.” 28 As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies on your account; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs, 29 for God’s gifts and his call are irrevocable. (NIV Romans 11:11-29)

The night is nearly over; the day is almost here. So let us put aside the deeds of darkness and put on the armor of light. 13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime 14:1 Accept him whose faith is weak, without passing judgment on disputable matters. 2 One man’s faith allows him to eat everything 5 One man considers one day more sacred than another; another man considers every day alike 10 You, then, why do you judge your brother? Or why do you look down on your brother? For we will all stand before God’s judgment seat 15 Do not by your eating destroy your brother for whom Christ died. 16 Do not allow what you consider good to be spoken of as evil. 17 For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking, but of righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Spirit, 18 because anyone who serves Christ in this way is pleasing to God and approved by men. 19 Let us therefore make every effort to do what leads to peace and to mutual edification 22 Blessed is the man who does not condemn himself by what he approves. 23 But the man who has doubts is condemned if he eats, because his eating is not from faith; and everything that does not come from faith is sin. 15:1 We who are strong ought to bear with the failings of the weak and not to please ourselves 5 May the God who gives endurance and encouragement give you a spirit of unity among yourselves as you follow Christ Jesus 8 For I tell you that Christ has become a servant of the Jews on behalf of God’s truth, to confirm the promises made to the patriarchs 9 so that the Gentiles may glorify God for his mercy, as it is written (NIV Romans 13:12-15:9)

THE ISRAELOCENTRIC GOSPEL

A. The Scriptures were given by God to reveal himself to fallen humanity. The core of this self-disclosure resides in the “names” that God gives himself. These names reveal his nature and character, which in turn informs how he governs over creation and thus how redemptive history unfolds.[1] Generally these names are not in a vacuum, but rather they are “Israelocentric”.[2]

Seth also had a son, and he named him Enosh. At that time men beganto call on the name of the LORD. (NIVGenesis 4:26)

There he built an altar to the LORD andcalled on the name of the LORD. (NIVGenesis 12:8)

David said to the Philistine, “You come against me with sword and spear and javelin, but Icome against you in the name of the LORD Almighty, the God of the armies of Israel, whom you have defied.” (NIV1 Samuel 17:45)

My father David had it in his heartto build a temple for the Name of the LORD, the God of Israel. (NIV1 Kings 8:17)

The nations willfear the name of the LORD, all the kings of the earth will revere your glory.16For the LORD will rebuild Zion and appear in his glory21Sothe name of the LORD will be declaredin Zion and his praise in Jerusalem22when the peoples and the kingdoms assemble to worship the LORD. (NIVPsalm 102:15-22)

The stone the builders rejected has become the capstone;23the LORD has done this, and it is marvelous in our eyes.24This is the day the LORD has made; let us rejoice and be glad in it.25O LORD, save us; O LORD, grant us success.26Blessed is he whocomes in the name of the LORD. From the house of the LORD we bless you(cf. Mt. 21:9; Mk. 11:9; Lk. 19:38; Jn. 12:13). (NIVPsalm 118:22-26)

So will it be on the earth and among the nations, as when an olive tree is beaten, or as when gleanings are left after the grape harvest.14They raise their voices, they shout for joy; from the west they acclaim the LORD’s majesty.15Therefore in the east give glory to the LORD;exalt the name of the LORD, the God of Israel, in the islands of the sea.16From the ends of the earth we hear singing: “Glory to the Righteous One.” (NIVIsaiah 24:13-16)

At that time they will call Jerusalem The Throne of the LORD, and all nations will gather in Jerusalemto honor the name of the LORD. No longer will they follow the stubbornness of their evil hearts. (NIVJeremiah 3:17)

The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD.32And everyone whocalls on the name of the LORD will be saved; for on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be deliverance, as the LORD has said, among the survivors whom the LORD calls. (NIVJoel 2:31-32)

1. The names of God aretraditionallydivided into three etymological categories:

a)YHVH– derivative of verb “to exist, be” (occurs 6,519 times in the OT).[3]

(1)YHVH Tsabaot– “Lord-Hosts/Armies” (cf. 1 Sa. 1:11; Ps. 24:10; 80:4; Is. 1:24; 6:5; Jer. 9:15; 48:1; Hos. 12:5; Am. 3:13; Mic. 4:4; Hag. 2:6; Zec. 1:3).

(2)YHVH Roah– “Lord-Shepherd” (cf. Gen. 49:24; Ps. 23:1; 80:1; Ez. 34:2).

(3)YHVH Rapha– “Lord-Heals” (cf. Ex. 15:26; Jer. 3:22; Is. 30:26; Ps. 103:3).

(4)YHVH Qanna– “Lord-Jealous” (cf. Ex. 20:5; 34:14; Deut. 4:24; Jos. 24:19).

b)Elohim– plural form ofEl, meaning “strong one” (occurs 2,570 times in OT), also used in conjunction withYHVH.[4]

(1)El Shaddai– “God-Almighty” (cf. Ge. 17:1; 28:3; 35:11; 49:25; Ex. 6:3; Num. 24:6; Ruth 1:20; Job; Ps. 22:10; 68:15; 91:1; Is. 13:6; Ez. 1:24; 10:5; Joel 1:15).

(2)El Elyon– “God-Supreme” (cf. Gen. 14:18ff; Ps. 7:17; 47:2; 57:2; Dan. 7:18ff).

(3)El Olam– “God-Everlasting” (cf. Gen. 21:33; Ps. 90:1ff; Jer. 10:10; Is. 26:4).

(4)El Chay– “God-Living” (cf. Deut. 5:26; Jos. 3:10; Ps. 42:2; 84:2; Jer. 10:10)

(5)El Yesha– “God-Salvation”, (cf. 1 Chr. 16:35; Ps. 65:5; 79:9; 85:4).

c)Adonai– plural form ofAdon, meaning “master, owner” (occurs 434 times in OT—e.g. Gen. 18:2; 40:1; Deut. 10:17; Ex. 21:1-6; Josh. 5:14; 1 Sam. 1:15; Ps. 110:1; 136:3), also used in conjunction with and substitution forYHVHandElohim.

2. Unfortunately, in discussions on the names of God, associations with individuals and nation(s) are almost never discussed. This is the result of the Hellenization of redemptive history and even of God Himself. Thus, the nature of God has become etherealized (e.g. immutable, impassible, transcendent, omniscient, omnipresent, etc.) and detached from the redemptive historyof the earth.[5]

3. Thus, the names of God are used to communicate two things: 1) God’s quality of character, and 2) God’s redemptive purpose. The former is generally expressed through the latter, which is expressed through covenant with the agents of the restoration of creation. In other words, God proves the quality of his character by remaining faithful to his creation in redemptive history, which plays out in the context of covenant with people(s).

a)YHVH Elohei Avraham Yitschaq Yaaqob– “LORD God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob”[6]

“I am the God of your father,the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob(Hb. Elohei Avraham Elohei Yitschaq Elohei Yaaqob).” And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God. (ESVExodus 3:6)

O LORD, God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel(Hb. YHVH Elohei Avraham Yitschaq Yisrael), let it be known today that you are God in Israel and that I am your servant(NIV1 Kings 18:36)

O LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel(Hb. YHVH Elohei Avraham Yitschaq Yisrael), our fathers, keep forever such purposes and thoughts in the hearts of your people, and direct their hearts toward you. (ESV1 Chronicles 29:18)

  • But in the account of the bush, even Moses showed that the dead rise, for he calls the Lord ‘the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ (NIVLuke 20:37)
  • TheGod of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified his servant Jesus(ESVActs 3:13)

Then we cried tothe LORD, the God of our fathers(Hb. YHVH Elohei abotenu), and the LORD heard our voice and saw our affliction, our toil, and our oppression. (ESVDeuteronomy 26:7)

The LORD, the God of their fathers(Hb. YHVH Elohei abotenu), sent word to them through his messengers again and again, because he had pity on his people and on his dwelling place. (NIV2 Chronicles 36:15)

  • The God of our fathersraised Jesus, whom you killed by hanging him on a tree.31God exalted him at his right hand as Leader and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins. (ESVActs 5:30-31)
  • But this I confess to you, that according to the Way, which they call a sect, I worshipthe God of our fathers, believing everything laid down by the Law and written in the Prophets(ESVActs 24:14)

b)YHVH Elohei Yisrael“LORD God of Israel”[7]

Thus saysthe LORD, the God of Israel(Hb. YHVH Elohei Yisrael), “Let my people go, that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.” (ESVExodus 5:1)

Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel went up,10and they sawthe God of Israel(Hb. Elohei Yisrael). (ESVExodus 24:9-10)

And now, LORD Goddo as you promised,26so that your name will be great forever. Then men will say, “The LORD Almighty is God over Israel!(Hb. YHVH Sabbaoth Elohim al-Yisrael)” And the house of your servant David will be established before you.27OLORD Almighty, God of Israel(Hb. YHVH Sabbaoth Elohei Yisrael), you have revealed this to your servant, saying, “I will build a house for you.” So your servant has found courage to offer you this prayer. (NIV2 Samuel 7:25-27)

Yetthe LORD, the God of Israel(Hb. YHVH Elohei Yisrael), chose me from my whole family to be king over Israel forever5he has chosen my son Solomon to sit on the throne ofthe kingdom of the LORD over Israel. (NIV1 Chronicles 28:4-5)

Endow the king with your justice, O God,the royal sonwith your righteousness8He will rule from sea to sea and from the River to the ends of the earth17May his name endure forever; may it continue as long as the sun.All nations will be blessedthrough him, and they will call him blessed.18Praise be tothe LORD God, the God of Israel(Hb. YHVH Elohim Elohei Yisrael), who alone does marvelous deeds.19Praise be to his glorious name forever; maythe whole earth be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen. (NIVPsalm 72:1-19)

  • The people were amazed when they saw the mute speaking, the crippled made well, the lame walking and the blind seeing. And they praisedthe God of Israel. (NIVMatthew 15:31)
  • Praise be to the Lord,the God of Israel, because he has come and has redeemed his people.69He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David70(as he said through his holy prophets of long ago),71salvation from our enemies and from the hand of all who hate us–72to show mercy to our fathers and to remember his holy covenant,73the oath he swore to our father Abraham(NIVLuke 1:68-73)

c)YHVH Adon kol-haerets– “LORD Lord of All the Earth”[8]

This is how you will know thatthe living God(Hb. El Chay)is among you11See, the ark of the covenant ofthe Lord of all the earth(Hb. Adon kol-haerets)will go into the Jordan ahead of you13And as soon as the priests who carry the ark ofthe LORD– the Lord of all the earth(Hb. YHVH Adon kol-haerets)— set foot in the Jordan, its waters flowing downstream will be cut off and stand up in a heap.” (NIVJoshua 3:10-13)

The mountains melted like wax at the presence ofthe LORD, at the presence ofthe Lord of the whole earth(Hb. Adon kol-haerets).6The heavens declare His righteousness, and all the peoples have seen His glory8Zion heard this and was glad, and the daughters of Judah have rejoiced because of Your judgments, O LORD.9For You arethe LORD Most High(Hb. YHVH Elyon)over all the earth; You are exalted far above all gods. (NASBPsalm 97:5-9)

Rise and thresh, O Daughter of Zion, for I will give you horns of iron; I will give you hoofs of bronze and you will break to pieces many nations. You will devote their ill-gotten gains tothe LORD, their wealthto the Lord of all the earth(Hb. Adon kol-haerets).5:1Marshal your troops, O city of troops, for a siege is laid against us. They will strike Israel’s ruler on the cheek with a rod.2But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for meone who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times. (NIVMicah 4:13-5:2)

Sing, O barren woman, you who never bore a child; burst into song, shout for joy, you who were never in labor; because more are the children of the desolate woman than of her who has a husband, says the LORD(cf. Gal. 4)5For your Maker is your husband–the LORD Almighty(Hb. YHVH Tsabaot)is his name–the Holy One of Israelis your Redeemer; he is calledthe God of all the earth(Hb. Elohei kol-haerets)11O afflicted city, lashed by storms and not comforted, I will build you with stones of turquoise, your foundations with sapphires.12I will make your battlements of rubies, your gates of sparkling jewels, and all your walls of precious stones.(cf. Rev. 21:2-21)(NIVIsaiah 54:1-12)

Again I asked him, “What are these two olive branches beside the two gold pipes that pour out golden oil?”14So he said, “These are the two who are anointed to servethe Lord of all the earth(Hb. Adon kol-haerets).”(cf. Rev. 11:4)(NIVZechariah 4:12-14)

  • The God who made the world and all things in it, sinceHe is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands26He made from one manevery nation of mankindto live on all the face of the earth30God is now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent,31because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed(NASBActs 17:24-31)
  • But now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify(cf. Is. 45:24f; 54:17; 61:10; Jer. 23:6; 33:16; Dan. 9:24; etc.).22This righteousness from God comes through faith in Jesus Christto all who believe(cf. Jew and Gentile, v.9). There is no difference,23for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God29Is Godthe God of Jewsonly? Is he notthe God of Gentilestoo? Yes, of Gentiles too,30since there is only one God, who will justify the circumcised by faith and the uncircumcised through that same faith. (NIVRomans 3:22-30)

4. God is proven as Almighty, Supreme, Lord, Mighty, Faithful, Shepherd, Savior, Healer, etc. in the context of fulfilling his covenants as the God of Abraham, Israel, David, Jesus, and the nations. In this way, God’s nature could be spoken of as “Israelocentric”, as the nature of redemptive history and the Day of the Lord are “Israelocentric”.


[1]“Unfortunately, to many the namesGodorLordconvey little more than designations of a supreme being. It says little to them about God’s character, His ways, and what God means to each of us as human beings. But in Scripture, the names of God are like miniature portraits and promises. In Scripture, a person’s name identified them and stood for something specific. This is especially true of God. Naming carried special significance. It was a sign of authority and power. This is evident in the fact that God revealed His names to His people rather than allowing them to choose their names for Him… Consequently, from this we can conclude that such phrases as “the name of the LORD” or “the name of God” refer to God’s whole character. It was a summary statement embodying the entire person of God.” (J. Hampton Keathley, III, “The Names of God,”Bible.org; available from http://bible.org/article/names-god.).

[2]Though there may be a general reference to “the name of the Lord”, it is assumed in context of the rest of Scripture (cf. Gen. 4:26; 12:8; 13:4; 16:13; 21:33; 26:25; Exod. 20:7; 34:5; Lev. 24:16; Deut. 5:11; 18:5, 7, 22; 21:5; 28:10; 32:3; Jos. 9:9; 1 Sam. 17:45; 20:42; 2 Sam. 6:2, 18; 1 Ki. 3:2; 5:3, 5; 8:17, 20; 10:1; 18:24, 32; 22:16; 2 Ki. 2:24; 5:11; 1 Chr. 13:6; 16:2; 21:19; 22:7, 19; 2 Chr. 2:1, 4; 6:7, 10; 18:15; 33:18; Job 1:21; Ps. 7:17; 20:7; 102:15, 21; 113:1ff; 116:4, 13, 17; 118:10ff, 26; 122:4; 124:8; 129:8; 135:1; 148:5, 13; Prov. 18:10; Isa. 18:7; 24:15; 30:27; 48:1; 50:10; 56:6; 59:19; 60:9; Jer. 11:21; 26:9, 16, 20; 44:16; Joel 2:26, 32; Amos 6:10; Mic. 4:5; 5:4; Zeph. 3:9, 12; Zech. 13:3; Matt. 21:9; 23:39; Mk. 11:9; Lk. 13:35; 19:38; Jn. 12:13; Acts 2:21; 8:16; 9:28; 19:5, 13, 17; 21:13; Rom. 10:13; 1 Co. 5:4; 6:11; Col. 3:17; 2 Tim. 2:19; Jas. 5:10, 14).

[3]Other infrequentYHVHnames include:YHVH Shalom(“Lord-Peace”, Jdg. 6:24),YHVH Yireh(“Lord-Provide”, Gen. 22:14),YHVH Nissi(“Lord-Banner/Miracle”, Ex. 17:15),YHVH Shammah(“Lord-There”, Ez. 48:35),YHVH Tsidkenu(“Lord-Righteousness”, Jer. 23:6; 33:16), andYHVH Maccaddeshcem(“Lord-Sanctifier”, Ex. 31:13; Lev. 20:8).

[4]Other infrequentElohimderivatives include:El Emeth(“True God”, 2 Chr. 15:3; Jer. 10:10),El Gibbor(“Mighty God”, Is. 9:6, Deut. 10:17),El Kedem(“Eternal God”, Deut. 33:27),El Deot(“Knowing God”, 1 Sam. 2:3),El Rachum(“Compassionate God”, Deut. 4:31),El Roi(“Seeing God”, Gen. 16:13),El Chasdi(“Faithful God”, Ps. 59:17),El Tsaddik(“Righteous God”, Is. 45:21), Immanu-el (“With-us God”, Is. 7:14).

[5]Note the initial declaration of the nature of God in the Westminster Confession (1647): “There is but one only living and true God, who is infinite in being and perfection, a most pure spirit, invisible, without body, parts, or passions, immutable, immense, eternal, incomprehensible…” (Westminster Confession, “Of God, and of the Holy Trinity,” Chapter 2; available at http://www.carm.org/westminster-confession.)

[6]Cf. Gen. 24:12, 27; 26:24; 28:13; 31:29, 42, 53; 32:9; 43:23; 46:3; 49:25; 50:17; Ex. 3:6, 15f; 4:5; 1 Ki. 18:36; 1 Chr. 28:9; 29:18; 2 Chr. 30:6; Ps. 47:9; Mt. 22:32; Mk. 12:26; Lk. 20:37; Acts 3:13; 7:32.

Likewise, note the repetition of the phrase “God of our/their/your fathers” (Ex. 3:13, 15f; 4:5; Deut. 1:11, 21; 4:1; 6:3; 12:1; 26:7; 27:3; 29:25; Jos. 18:3; Jdg. 2:12; 1 Chr. 5:25; 12:17; 29:20; 2 Chr. 7:22; 11:16; 13:12ff; 14:4; 15:12; 19:4; 20:6, 33; 24:18, 24; 28:6ff; 29:5; 30:7, 22; 34:32f; 36:15; Ezr. 7:27; 8:28; 10:11; Acts 3:13; 5:30; 7:32; 22:14; 24:14.)

[7]Cf. Exod. 5:1; 24:10; 32:27; 34:23; Num. 16:9; Jos. 7:13, 19f; 8:30; 9:18f; 10:40, 42; 13:14, 33; 14:14; 22:16, 24; 24:2, 23; Jdg. 4:6; 5:3, 5; 6:8; 11:21, 23; 21:3; Ruth 2:12; 1 Sam. 1:17; 2:30; 5:7f, 10f; 6:3, 5; 10:18; 14:41; 20:12; 23:10f; 25:32, 34; 2 Sam. 7:27; 12:7; 23:3; 1 Ki. 1:30, 48; 8:15, 17, 20, 23, 25f; 11:9, 31; 14:7, 13; 15:30; 16:13, 26, 33; 17:1, 14; 22:53; 2 Ki. 9:6; 10:31; 14:25; 18:5; 19:15, 20; 21:12; 22:15, 18; 1 Chr. 4:10; 5:26; 15:12, 14; 16:4, 36; 17:24; 22:6; 23:25; 24:19; 28:4; 29:10; 2 Chr. 2:12; 6:4, 7, 10, 14, 16f; 11:16; 13:5; 15:4, 13; 20:19; 29:7, 10; 30:1, 5; 32:17; 33:16, 18; 34:23, 26; 36:13; Ezr. 1:3; 3:2; 4:1, 3; 5:1; 6:14, 21f; 7:6, 15; 8:35; 9:4, 15; Ps. 41:13; 59:5; 68:8, 35; 69:6; 72:18; 106:48; Isa. 17:6; 21:10, 17; 24:15; 29:23; 37:16, 21; 41:17; 45:3, 15; 48:1f; 52:12; Jer. 7:3, 21; 9:15; 11:3; 13:12; 16:9; 19:3, 15; 21:4; 23:2; 24:5; 25:15, 27; 27:4, 21; 28:2, 14; 29:4, 8, 21, 25; 30:2; 31:23; 32:14f, 36; 33:4; 34:2, 13; 35:13, 17ff; 37:7; 38:17; 39:16; 42:9, 15, 18; 43:10; 44:2, 7, 11, 25; 45:2; 46:25; 48:1; 50:18; 51:33; Ezek. 8:4; 9:3; 10:19f; 11:22; 43:2; 44:2; Zeph. 2:9; Mal. 2:16; Matt. 15:31; Lk. 1:68.

[8]Cf. Jos. 3:11, 13; Ps. 97:5; Is. 54:5; Mic. 4:13; Zech. 4:14; 6:5.