A. As a sojourning nation awaiting the consummation of the covenants, the Church is called to seek the Lord, prepare in holiness, and testify to all the nations concerning the coming Kingdom of our Lord Jesus the Messiah. Moreover, God has given us a deposit of his Spirit to assure us of the certainty of such things and empower a witness of them.
Therefore, preparing your minds for action, and being sober-minded, set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to youat the revelation of Jesus Christ.14As obedient children, do not be conformed to the passions of your former ignorance…17And if you call on him as Father who judges impartially according to each one’s deeds,conduct yourselves(Gk. anastrephō)with fearthroughout the time of your exile. (ESV1 Peter 1:13-17)
Those who have served well gain an excellent standing andgreat assurance in their faithin Christ Jesus.14Although I hope to come to you soon, I am writing you these instructions so that,15if I am delayed, you will know how peopleought to conduct themselves(Gk. anastrephō)in God’s household, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of the truth. (NIV1 Timothy 3:13-15)
Meaning:1) to turn upside down 2) to turn back 3) to turn hither and thither, to turn one’s self about, sojourn dwell in a place 4) metaph. to conduct one’s self, behave one’s self, live
Origin:from 303 [Gk.ana] and 4762 [Gk.strepho, “to turn”]; TDNT – 7:715,1093; v
Usage:AV – return 2, have conversation 2, live 2, abide 1, overthrow 1, behave (one’s) self 1, be used 1, pass 1; 11
B. Considering the state of the human heart and the persistence of darkness on the earth, God has deemed discipline necessary to sustain a repentant and believing heart—internally through a fasted lifestyle and externally through trials and tribulations. Moreover, in order to remain faithful, the human heart demands a continual feeding of the Holy Spirit, who testifies to the age to come.
When you pray, say: “Father, hallowed be your name,your kingdom come.3Give us each dayour daily bread.4Forgive us our sins, for we also forgive everyone who sins against us…5Suppose one of you has a friend, and he goes to himat midnightand says, “Friend, lend me three loaves ofbread…“9So I say to you: Ask and it(i.e. bread)will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you…13If you then, though you are evil, know how to givegood giftsto your children, how much more will your Father in heavengive the Holy Spiritto those who ask him! (NIVLuke 11:2-13)
C. The gifts of the Holy Spirit have thus been given by God to strengthen the Assembly in the place of prayer and faithful sojourning. More specifically, gifts are givento individualswithin the Church to bless and encourage the whole in repentance and belief in the age to come. Unfortunately, when emphasized today the five-fold ministry is generally interpreted under the banner of dominionism rather than sojourning.
There aredifferent kinds of gifts, but the same Spirit.5There aredifferent kinds of service, but the same Lord.6There aredifferent kinds of working, but the same God works all of them in all men.7Now to each one the manifestation of the Spirit is givenfor the common good…27Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it.28And in the church God has appointed first of allapostles, secondprophets, thirdteachers, then workers ofmiracles, also those having gifts ofhealing, those able tohelp others, those with gifts ofadministration, and those speaking in different kinds oftongues.29Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles?30Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret?31But eagerly desire the greater gifts. (NIV1 Corinthians 12:4-31)
Acts 5:22; 15:16; 2 Co. 1:12; Eph. 2:3; 1 Tim. 3:15; Heb. 10:33; 13:18; 1 Pet. 1:17; 2 Pet. 2:18.
A. Thus, the purpose of the “five-fold ministry” (cf. Eph. 4:11) is toadministrate the giftsof the Holy Spirit unto leading the church in righteousness and watchful prayer, unto empowerment in the grace of God, unto maturity and faithfulness in our calling, unto our inheritance in the Kingdom.
Therefore I, the prisoner of the Lord, implore youto walk in a manner worthy of the callingwith which you have been called,2with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing tolerance for one another in love,3being diligent to preserve the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.4There isone body and one Spirit, just as also you were called inone hope of your calling;5one Lord, one faith, one baptism,6one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.7Butto each one of us grace was givenaccording to the measure of Christ’s gift.8Therefore it says, “When he ascended on high, he led captive a host of captives, and he gave gifts to men.”(cf. Ps. 68:18)…11And He gave some asapostles, and some asprophets, and some asevangelists, and some aspastorsandteachers,12for the equipping of the saints for the work of service, to the building up of the body of Christ;13until we all attain to theunity of the faith(concerning the Kingdom and resurrection), and ofthe knowledge of the Son of God(as Messiah), to amature man(in our calling), to the measure of the stature which belongs to thefullness of Christ(cf. Phil. 1:27; Col. 1:10; 1 Thess. 2:12; etc.). (NASBEphesians 4:1-13)
B. Since the five-fold ministry is an expression of the ministry of the Holy Spirit, it is ultimately meant to testify to the age to come. Thus, like all the other gifts of the Holy Spirit, the five-fold ministry is meant to shepherd and establish the Church in its calling in the age to come.
This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord(in his resurrection), was confirmed to us by those who heard him.4God also testified to itby signs, wonders and various miracles, andgifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will. (NIVHebrews 2:3-5)
Butwhen the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father,he will bear witness about me.27And you also will bear witness, because you have been with me from the beginning. (ESVJohn 15:26-27)
C. The Lord has chosen to establish various ministries within his Body by the Holy Spirit, each designed to spur the Church on to maturity in its calling and destiny in the coming Kingdom. Paul groups these ministries into five general categories:
He gave some asapostles, and some asprophets, and some asevangelists, and some aspastorsandteachers,12for the equipping of the saints…(NASBEphesians 4:11-12)
a) The idea of apostleship was not a new concept to those in first century Judaism. Apostleship simply embodies the idea of governmental appointment or anointing—i.e. thosesent as representativesof a king or lord.
Meaning:1) a delegate, messenger, one sent forth with orders 1a) specifically applied to the twelve apostles of Christ 1b) in a broader sense applied to other eminent Christian teachers 1b1) of Barnabas 1b2) of Timothy and Silvanus
Origin:from 649; TDNT – 1:407,67; n m
Usage:AV – apostle 78, messenger 2, he that is sent 1; 81.
Meaning:1) to order (one) to go to a place appointed 2) to send away, dismiss 2a) to allow one to depart, that he may be in a state of liberty 2b) to order one to depart, send off 2c) to drive away
Origin:from 575 [Gk.apo; “of separation”] and 4724 [Gk.stello; “to set, place, arrange…”]; TDNT – 1:398,67; v
Usage:AV – send 110, send forth 15, send away 4, send out 2, misc 2; 133.
Therefore, holy brothers, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts onJesus, the apostle(Gk. apostolos)and high priest whom we confess.2He was faithful to the one who appointed him,just as Moses was faithful in all God’s house. (NIVHebrews 3:1-2)
When Jacob went into Egypt, and the Egyptians oppressed them, then your fathers cried out to the LORD andthe LORD sent(Gk. apostellōLXX)Moses and Aaron, who brought your fathers out of Egypt and made them dwell in this place. (ESV1 Samuel 12:8)
Korah son of Izhar…became insolent2androse up against Moses. With them were 250 Israelite men,well-known community leaderswho had been appointed members of the council.3They came as a group to oppose Moses and Aaron and said to them, “You have gone too far! The whole community is holy, every one of them, and the LORD is with them. Why then do youset yourselves above the LORD’s assembly?”4When Moses heard this, he fell facedown.5Then he said to Korah and all his followers…8“Now listen, you Levites!9Isn’t it enough for you that the God of Israel has separated you from the rest of the Israelite community and brought you near himself to do the work at the LORD’s tabernacle and to stand before the community and minister to them?…15Then Moses became very angry and said to the LORD, “Do not accept their offering.I have not taken so much as a donkey from them, nor have I wronged any of them.”…19When Korah had gathered all his followers in opposition to them at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, the glory of the LORD appeared to the entire assembly…28Then Moses said, “This is how you will know thatthe LORD has sent me(Gk. apostellōLXX)to do all these things and that it was not my idea…“31As soon as he finished saying all this, the ground under them split apart32and the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them…(NIVNumbers 16:1-33)
b) Those in the New Testament simply assumed the idea of Old Testament apostleship, only applied to a new era of redemptive history when grace and mercy has been fully displayed and extended to the nations.
Jesus went up on a mountainside and called to him those he wanted, and they came to him.14He appointed twelve–designating them apostles–that they might be with him and that he might send them out to preach15and to have authority to drive out demons. (NIVMark 3:13-15)
Jesus said to them again, “Peace be with you.As the Father has sent me(Gk. apostellō), even soI am sending you(Gk. pempō).”22And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit.” (ESVJohn 20:21-22)
In those days Peter stood up among the brothers…17“he(Judas)was numbered among us and was allotted his share inthis ministry(Gk. diakonia)…22one of these men mustbecome with us a witnessto his resurrection.”…24And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen25to take the place inthis ministry(Gk. diakonia)andapostleship(Gk. apostolē)from which Judas turned aside to go to his own place.”26And they cast lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias…(ESVActs 1:15-26)
Meaning:1) service, ministering, esp. of those who execute the commands of others 2) of those who by the command of God proclaim and promote religion among men 2a) of the office of Moses 2b) of the office of the apostles and its administration 2c) of the office of prophets, evangelists, elders etc. 3) the ministration of those who render to others the offices of Christian affection…
Origin:from 1249; TDNT – 2:87,152; n f
Usage:AV – ministry 16, ministration 6, ministering 3, misc 9; 34
c) Thus, those in the New Testament view their apostleship as a governmental responsibility inservingthe Body of Christ. Apostleship is not a privilege to be exploited in this age for the riches, honor and long-life of the commissioned servant.
I have made a fool of myself, but you drove me to it. I ought to have been commended by you, forI am not in the least inferior to the “super-apostles,”even though I am nothing.12The things that mark an apostle– signs, wonders and miracles– were done among you with great perseverance…13How were you inferior to the other churches, except thatI was never a burden to you? Forgive me this wrong!…17Did I exploit youthrough any of the men I sent you?18I urged Titus to go to you and I sent our brother with him.Titus did not exploit you, did he? Did we not act in the same spirit and follow the same course?19Have you been thinking all along that we have been defending ourselves to you? We have been speaking in the sight of God as those in Christ; and everything we do, dear friends,is for your strengthening. (NIV2 Corinthians 12:11-19)
For I think thatGod has exhibited us apostles as last of all, like men sentenced to death, because we have become a spectacle to the world, to angels, and to men…11To the present hour wehunger and thirst, we arepoorly dressed and buffeted and homeless,12and welabor, working with our own hands. Whenreviled, we bless; whenpersecuted, we endure;13whenslandered, we entreat. We have become, and are still,like the scum of the world, the refuse of all things.14I do not write these things to make you ashamed, but to admonish you as my beloved children…15ForI became your fatherin Christ Jesus through the gospel(cf. leader of the household). (ESV1 Corinthians 4:9-16)
d) Apostles are thus the “foundation” of the Church—accountable to the Lord, the “cornerstone”—leading the saints in righteousness and holiness until the consummation of the Kingdom.
Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens(i.e. Gentiles), but fellow citizens with God’s people(i.e. Jews)and members of God’s household(sojourning unto the Kingdom),20built onthe foundation of the apostles and prophets(serving the whole house), with Christ Jesus himself asthe chief cornerstone.21In him the whole building is joined together and rises to becomea holy temple in the Lord(awaiting the messianic consummation).22And in him you too are being built togetherto become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit(cf. resurrection). (NIVEphesians 2:19-22)
a) Old Testament and New, prophets have always been fundamentally defined as those who foresee the restoration of all things by means of the Messianic Seed.
Meaning:1) in Greek writings, an interpreter of oracles or of other hidden things 2) one who, moved by the Spirit of God and hence his organ or spokesman, solemnly declares to men what he has received by inspiration, especially concerning future events, and in particular such as relate to the cause and kingdom of God and to human salvation…
Origin:from a compound of 4253 [Gk.pro; “before”] and 5346 [Gk.phēmi; “to declare; to say”]; TDNT – 6:781,952; n m
Usage:AV – prophet 149; 149.
In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,4and intoan inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade– kept in heaven for you,5who through faith are shielded by God’s power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time…10Concerning this salvation, the prophets, who spoke of the grace that was to come to you, searched intently and with the greatest care,11trying to find out the time and circumstances to which the Spirit of Christ in them was pointingwhen he predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. (NIV1 Peter 1:3-11)
He said to them, “How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believeall that the prophets have spoken!26Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?”27And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to themwhat was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself. (NIVLuke 24:25)
b) The prophetic ministry is thus simply assumed in the New Testament to be complementary to that of the prophetic ministry in the Old Testament.
Therefore, my brothers, be all the more eager to make your calling and election sure. For if you do these things, you will never fall,11and you will receive a rich welcome intothe eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ…18We ourselves heard this voice that came from heaven when we were with him on the sacred mountain.19Andwe have the word of the prophets made more certain, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place,until the day dawnsand the morning star rises in your hearts.20Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation.21For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, butmen spoke from God(concerning the eternal kingdom of the Christ)as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.2:1But there were alsofalse prophetsamong the people, just as there will befalse teachersamong you. They will secretly introducedestructive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord who bought them– bringing swift destruction on themselves.2Many will follow their shameful ways and will bringthe way of truth into disrepute(concerning the Kingdom and resurrection).3In their greed these teachers will exploit you with stories they have made up. (NIV2 Peter 1:10-2:3)
c) Like the ministry of an apostle, the ministry of the prophet is raised up by the Holy Spirit to strengthen and encourage the Church in its destiny and calling. Without the self-sacrificial spirit of the One whom we serve, the prophet’s words are spoken in vain.
And in the churchGod has appointed first of all apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then workers of miracles, also those having gifts of healing, those able to help others, those with gifts of administration, and those speaking in different kinds of tongues…31But eagerly desirethe greater gifts. And now I will show you the most excellent way.13:1If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal.2If I havethe gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing…14:1Follow the way of love andeagerly desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy…3everyone who prophesies speaks to menfor their strengthening, encouragement and comfort.4He who speaks in a tongue edifies himself, but he who prophesiesedifies the church. (NIV1 Corinthians 12:28-14:4)
a) The ministry of the evangelist (cf. Gk.euaggelizō) is likewise assumed to be carried over from the Old Testament as one whom the Spirit empowers to make known the good news of the coming Kingdom and Messiah (cf. Hb.basar, Is. 40:9; 52:7; 60:6; 61:1; etc.).
Meaning:1) a bringer of good tidings, an evangelist 2) the name given to the NT heralds of salvation through Christ who are not apostles
Origin:from 2097 [Gk.euaggelizō]; TDNT – 2:736,267; n m
Usage:AV – evangelist 3; 3 [Acts 21:8; Eph. 4:11; 2 Tim. 4:5]
Get yourself up on a high mountain, O Zion,bearer of good news(Hb. basar, Gk. euaggelizōLXX), Lift up your voice mightily, O Jerusalem,bearer of good news(Hb. basar, Gk. euaggelizōLXX); Lift it up, do not fear. Say to the cities of Judah, “Here is your God!”10Behold, the Lord GOD will come with might, With His arm ruling for Him. Behold,His reward is with Him and His recompense before Him. (NASBIsaiah 40:9-10)
Awake, awake, clothe yourself in your strength, O Zion; clothe yourself in your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; for the uncircumcised and the unclean will no longer come into you.2Shake yourself from the dust, rise up, O captive Jerusalem; loose yourself from the chains around your neck, O captive daughter of Zion…7How lovely on the mountains are the feet ofhim who brings good news(Hb. basar, Gk. euaggelizōLXX), who announces peace and brings good news of happiness,who announces salvation, and says to Zion, “Your God reigns!”…10The LORD has bared His holy arm in the sight of all the nations,that all the ends of the earth may see the salvation of our God. (NASBIsaiah 52:1-10)
b) Thus, the term “evangelist” is only used three times in the NT (Acts 21:8; Eph. 4:11; 2 Tim. 4:5), yet it is universally assumed to be a central aspect of the ministry of the Holy Spirit.
…that is, the word of faith we are proclaiming:9That if you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart thatGod raised him from the dead, you will be saved.10For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved…14How, then, can they call on the one they have not believed in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? And how can they hearwithout someone preaching to them?15And how can they preach unlessthey are sent(Gk. apostellō)? As it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news(Gk.euaggelizō)!”(cf. Is. 52:7)(NIVRomans 10:8-15)
In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, andin view of his appearing and his kingdom, I give you this charge:2Preach the Word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage– with great patience and careful instruction.3For the time will come when men will not put up with sound doctrine…5But you, keep your head in all situations, endure hardship,do the work of an evangelist(Gk. euaggelistēs), discharge all the duties of your ministry. (NIV2 Timothy 4:1-5)
c) Jesus models the ministry of the evangelist, which the apostles also emulate. Like the other ministries of the Holy Spirit, the preaching of the good news of the Kingdom is meant to strengthen the Body of Christ and shake the world which embraces the antichrist spirit.
Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another,proclaiming the good news(Gk. euaggelizō)of the kingdom of God.The Twelve were with him,2and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases. (NIVLuke 8:1-2)
You know the message God sent to the people of Israel,telling the good news(Gk. euaggelizō)of peace through Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all…39We are witnesses of everything he did in the country of the Jews and in Jerusalem…42Hecommanded us to preach to the peopleand to testify that he is the one whom God appointed as judge of the living and the dead.43All the prophets testifyabout him that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins through his name. (NIVActs 10:36-43)
…God has chosen you from the beginning for salvationthrough sanctification by the Spirit and faith in the truth.14It was for this He called you through our gospel(Gk. euaggelion), that you maygain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.15So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught, whether by word of mouth or by letter from us.16Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us eternal comfort and good hope by grace,17comfort and strengthen your hearts in every good work and word.3:1Finally, brethren, pray for us thatthe word of the Lord(cf. euaggelion, 3:14)will spread rapidly and be glorified, just as it did also with you;2and that we will be rescued from perverse and evil men…(NASB2 Thessalonians 2:13-3:2)
a) Like the other ministries of the Holy Spirit, the teaching gift within the Assembly was universally assumed from the Tanakh, which found expression in the first-century “teachers of the Law”.
Meaning:1) a teacher 2) in the NT one who teaches concerning the things of God, and the duties of man [cf. Jewish religion; John the Baptist; Jesus; apostles; Paul; false teachers]…
Origin:from 1321 [Gk.didasko; “to teach”]; TDNT – 2:148,161; n m
Usage:AV – Master (Jesus) 40, teacher 10, master 7, doctor 1; 58.
But you are not to be called ‘Rabbi,’ for you have only one Master and you are all brothers.9And do not call anyone on earth ‘father,’ for you have one Father, and he is in heaven.10Nor are you to be called ‘teacher,’ for you have one Teacher, the Christ.11The greatest among you will be your servant.12For whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.13Woe to you,teachers of the lawand Pharisees, you hypocrites!You shut the kingdom of heaven in men’s faces. You yourselves do not enter, nor will you let those enter who are trying to.14(MT Insertion)15Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and when he becomes one,you make him twice as much a son of hell as you are. (NIVMatthew 23:8-13)
b) As those who taught the Mosaic Law were suppose to be teaching in such a way that encouraged and strengthened the people in their sojourning (cf. consecration and holiness), so also are teachers in the New Covenant suppose to spur the Body on toward love and good works in preparation for the Kingdom.
Those who are wise will instruct many, though for a time they will fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered…35Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotlessuntil the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time. (NIVDaniel 11:33-35)
“Once again, the kingdom of heaven is like a net that was let down into the lake and caught all kinds of fish…51Have you understood all these things?” Jesus asked. “Yes,” they replied.52He said to them, “Thereforeevery teacher of the law who has been instructed about the kingdom of heaven(and the delay therein)is like the owner of a house who brings out of his storeroom new treasures as well as old.” (NIVMatthew 13:47-52)
c) During the age of darkness, dwelling in a body of death, the Church desperately needs teaching that sheds light and brings hope, without which the human soul shrivels and dies.
Hear the word of the LORD, O children of Israel, forthe LORD has a controversy with the inhabitants of the land. There is no faithfulness or steadfast love, and no knowledge(“acknowledgment”NIV)of God in the land;2there is swearing, lying, murder, stealing, and committing adultery; they break all bounds, and bloodshed follows bloodshed…4Yet let no one contend, and let none accuse, forwith you is my contention, O priest.5You shall stumble by day; the prophet also shall stumble with you by night; and I will destroy your mother.6My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge; because you have rejected knowledge, I reject you from being a priest to me. And since you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children…9And it shall be like people, like priest; I will punish them for their ways and repay them for their deeds. (ESVHosea 4:1-9)
You must teach what is in accord with sound doctrine.2Teach the older men…3Likewise, teach the older women…4Then they can train the younger women…7In everything set them an example by doing what is good. In your teaching show integrity, seriousness8and soundness of speech that cannot be condemned…11For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men.12It teaches us to say “No” to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this present age,13while we wait for the blessed hope– the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ,14who gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness…(NIVTitus 2:1-14)
“A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Heb. 3:1; John 20:21). It is, however, generally used as designating the body of disciples to whom he entrusted the organization of his church and the dissemination of his gospel.” [M.G. Easton,Easton’s Bible Dictionary(Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996, c1897).]
Much publicity and hype has been made recently over the supposed restoration of the apostolic ministry, i.e. the “New Apostolic Reformation”—“I needed a name… For a couple of years I experimented with ‘Post denominationalism’. The name I have settled on for the movement is the New Apostolic Reformation.” [C. Peter Wagner,The New Apostolic Churches(Regal Book, 1998), 18.] This reformation assumes a network of charismatic individuals who assume the right to lead the Body of Christ into its glorious end-times dominionist destiny. However, the vast majority within this movement are post-millennial in their eschatology, lack a clear context of the resurrection and kingdom for the activity of the Holy Spirit, and thus little stress the centrality of humility, meekness and love as the backbone for the apostolic ministry.
The undergirding ideas about ecclesiology and the Church within the New Apostolic Reformation are informed by Kingdom Now theology, and as such the Church is the manifestation of the Kingdom of God on earth. This harkens back to its Catholic roots (i.e. “apostolic succession” and the ultimate decision making power of the episcopate which developed in tandem with metaphysical dualism), since the leaders of the Churchin practicalityare the ultimate governing authority of the Church, rather than the Body relating directly to the Head (resulting in things such as the Shepherding Movement). Jesus rebukes this attitude directly in Mt. 23:8ff, and it is inherently militated against within a messianic worldview, which fosters a relational network within the Body functioning in mutual submission under a common governmental Head enthroned in the heavens above (e.g. Acts 16:6). This is the only hope for the Church at the end of the age which will grow increasingly dis-integrated under the pressures of the eschatological distress. Every individual within the whole is to be trained to directly listen to and obey the Holy Spirit for guidance and leadership.
Tim Warner explains, “The Greek word φωσφορος is incorrectly rendered “Daystar” in most translations. The word is NOT φωσφερος – derived from φως (light) and φερω (bearer), as many lexicons have it. It is φωσφορος derived from φως (light) and φορεω (to be clothed with). The English word “phosphorus” (a luminescent element) is the direct transliteration of this Greek word, and has precisely the same meaning. In the masculine singular form, as it appears in 2 Peter 1:19, it literally means, “the One clothed with light.” When Peter wrote, “until that Day dawns, and the One clothed in light arises,” he was referring to the coming of Christ’s Kingdom, and to Jesus as He appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration, “His clothes became shining, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no launderer on earth can whiten them.” The “dawning” and “arising” metaphor Peter used is based on Malachi’s prophecy of Christ’s Kingdom (that Day), and the arising of the “Sun of Righteousness,” who is Jesus Christ, (Mal. 4:1-3).” (Tim Warner, “The Coming Millennial Sabbath – Part I: Eschatology of the Creation Week,”Answers in Revelation, 12, n.8; available athttp://www.oasischristianchurch.org/air/chiliasm.pdf).
“This title is applied to Philip (Acts 21:8), who appears to have gone from city to city preaching the word (8:4, 40). Judging from the case of Philip, evangelists had neither the authority of an apostle, nor the gift of prophecy, nor the responsibility of pastoral supervision over a portion of the flock. They were itinerant preachers, having it as their special function to carry the gospel to places where it was previously unknown.” [M.G. Easton,Easton’s Bible Dictionary(Oak Harbor: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1996, c1897).]
a) Closely connected to the teaching ministry is the shepherding (i.e. “pastoral”) ministry of the Holy Spirit. Throughout the Old and New Testaments, it is the dominant glue that holds the Assembly together.
Meaning:1) a herdsman, esp. a shepherd 1a) in the parable, he to whose care and control others have committed themselves, and whose precepts they follow 2) metaph. 2a) the presiding officer, manager, director, of any assembly: so of Christ the Head of the church
Origin:of unc. or.
Usage:NASB – pastors 1, shepherd 13, shepherds 4; 18.
Son of man, prophesy againstthe shepherds of Israel; prophesy, and say to them, even to the shepherds, Thus says the Lord GOD: Ah, shepherds of Israel who have beenfeeding yourselves! Should not shepherdsfeed the sheep?…6My sheep were scattered; they wandered over all the mountains and on every high hill. My sheep were scattered over all the face of the earth…11Behold, I, I myself will search for my sheep and will seek them out…13And I will bring them out from the peoples and gather them from the countries, and will bring them into their own land…15I myself will be the shepherd of my sheep, and I myself will make them lie down…17Behold, I judge between sheep and sheep, between rams and male goats…20I myself will judge between the fat sheep and the lean sheep…23And I will set up over themone shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd.24And I, the LORD, will be their God, and my servant David shall be prince among them. (ESVEzekiel 34:2-24)
Woe to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture…3I will gather the remnant of my flock out of all the countries where I have driven them…4I will set shepherds over them who will care for them, and they shall fear no more, nor be dismayed, neither shall any be missing, declares the LORD.5Behold, the days are coming, declares the LORD, when I will raise up for David arighteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land. (ESVJeremiah 23:1-5)
When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, “Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?…Feed my lambs…16Simon, son of John, do you love me?…Tend my sheep…17Simon, son of John, do you love me?…Feed my sheep.” (ESVJohn 21:15-17)
b) The pastoral ministry of the Holy Spirit functions in a general way, caring for and leading the saints in righteousness and holiness in preparation for the age to come. This requires a combination of diligence and compassion, feeding people in due season according to their true needs.
Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom the master has put in charge of the servants in his householdto give them their food at the proper time?46It will be good for that servant whose master finds him doing so when he returns. (NIVMatthew 24:45-46)
Jesus went through all the towns and villages,teachingin their synagogues,preachingthe good news of the kingdom andhealingevery disease and sickness(cf. 1 Cor. 12:29-31).36When he saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, becausethey were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd.37Then he said to his disciples, “The harvest is plentiful but the workers(i.e. shepherds)are few.” (NIVMatthew 9:35-37)
c) Other designations, such as “elder” (Gk.presbuteros), “overseer” (Gk.episkopos), and “deacon” (Gk.diakonos), all refer to essentially the same pastoral/shepherding type ministry within the Body.
To theelders(Gk. presbuteros)among you, I appeal as afellow elder(Gk. presbuteros),a witnessof Christ’s sufferings and one who also will share in the glory to be revealed:2Be shepherds(Gk. poimainō)of God’s flock that is under your care,serving as overseers(Gk. episkopeō)— not because you must, but because you are willing, as God wants you to be; not greedy for money, but eager to serve;3not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock.4And whenthe Chief Shepherd(Gk. archipoimēn)appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away. (NIV1 Peter 5:1-4)
D. Summary – thewhole ministryof the Holy Spirit, including the gifts distributed to men for the building up the Body, is meant to establish the Church in maturity so that it may function with one accord unto its destiny in the coming Kingdom. If there are any other motives involved in these ministries, then the flock ought to seek new shepherds.
Therefore I, the prisoner of the Lord, implore youto walk in a manner worthy of the callingwith which you have been called,2with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing tolerance for one another in love,3being diligent to preserve theunity of the Spiritin the bond of peace.4There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called inone hope of your calling;5one Lord, one faith, one baptism,6one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.7Butto each one of us grace was givenaccording to the measure of Christ’s gift…11And He gave some as apostles, and some as prophets, and some as evangelists, and some as pastors and teachers,12for the equipping of the saintsfor the work of service, to the building up of the body of Christ;13until we all attain to theunity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God,to a mature man, to the measure of the stature which belongs to the fullness of Christ. (NASBEphesians 4:1-13)
No other metaphor is used more often in the Bible concerning leadership than that of pastoral care (cf. Gen. 48:15; 49:24; Num. 27:16-17; 2 Sam. 24:17; 1 Ki. 22:17; 2 Chr. 18:16; Ps. 23; 28:9; 74:1; 77:20; 78:52-53; 80:1; 95:7; 100:3; 121:3-8; Ecc. 12:11; Isa. 40:11; 49:9-10; Jer. 2:8; 3:15; 10:21; 12:10; 22:22; 23:1-4; 25:34ff; 27:6; 31:10; 49:19-20; 50:17-19; Ezek. 34:1-10; 37:24; Am. 1:2; 3:12; Mic. 4:6-8; 5:4; 7:14; Nah. 3:18; Zech. 10:3; 11:4-17; 13:7; Matt. 9:36; 10:6; 15:24; 18:12-14; Mark 6:34; Luke 15:3-7; John 10:1-29; 21:15-17; Acts 20:28-30; 1 Pet. 2:25; 5:1-4).
Matt. 9:36; 25:32; 26:31; Mk. 6:34; 14:27; Lk. 2:8, 15, 18, 20; Jn. 10:2, 11f, 14, 16; Eph. 4:11; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pet. 2:25.
Cf. Matt. 15:2; 16:21; 21:23; 26:3, 47, 57; 27:1, 3, 12, 20, 41; 28:12; Mk. 7:3, 5; 8:31; 11:27; 14:43, 53; 15:1; Lk. 7:3; 9:22; 15:25; 20:1; 22:52; Jn. 8:9; Acts 2:17; 4:5, 8, 23; 6:12; 11:30; 14:23; 15:2, 4, 6, 22f; 16:4; 20:17; 21:18; 23:14; 24:1; 25:15; 1 Tim. 5:1f, 17, 19; Tit. 1:5; Heb. 11:2; Jas. 5:14; 1 Pet. 5:1, 5; 2 Jn. 1:1; 3 Jn. 1:1; Rev. 4:4, 10; 5:5f, 8, 11, 14; 7:11, 13; 11:16; 14:3; 19:4.
Cf. Acts 20:28; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3:2; Tit. 1:7; 1 Pet. 2:25.
Cf. Matt. 20:26; 22:13; 23:11; Mk. 9:35; 10:43; Jn. 2:5, 9; 12:26; Rom. 13:4; 15:8; 16:1; 1 Co. 3:5; 2 Co. 3:6; 6:4; 11:15, 23; Gal. 2:17; Eph. 3:7; 6:21; Phil. 1:1; Col. 1:7, 23, 25; 4:7; 1 Tim. 3:8, 12; 4:6.
A. The Bible warns against those who “disguise themselves as servants of righteousness” (2 Cor. 11:15), those who are false apostles (cf. 2 Cor. 11:13; 2:17; Phil. 1:15f; Rev. 2:2), false prophets (Mt. 7:15; 24:11; Lk. 6:26; 1 Jn. 4:1; Rev. 2:20; 19:20), and false teachers (cf. 1 Tim. 4:1ff; 2 Tim. 4:3; 2 Pe. 2:1ff; Eph. 4:14; Col. 2:4ff; Rom. 16:17ff). These are “false brothers” (Gal. 2:4) and “ungodly men” (Jude 1:4), who have “the spirit of the antichrist” (1 Jn. 4:1-3), but what exactly is the root cause of such falsehood?
But there were alsofalse prophetsamong the people, just as there will befalse teachersamong you. They will secretly introducedestructive heresies, evendenying the sovereign Lordwho bought them– bringing swift destruction on themselves.2Many will follow their shameful waysand will bring the way of truth into disrepute.3In their greedthese teachers willexploit youwith stories they have made up. (NIV2 Peter 2:1-3)
B. Falsehood in the human condition is rooted in pride and the knowledge of good and evil. After the Fall, the image of man (inward and outward) was broken and distorted. God seeks repentance and restoration through the Cross that our inward man might be renewed and restored in the image of God, even while our outward man continues to perish (cf. 2 Cor. 4:16; Col. 3:10)—and this too will one day be conformed to the image of the Son of God (cf. Phil. 3:21; 1 Cor. 15:43-53).
Therefore we do not lose heart. Thoughoutwardly we are wasting away, yetinwardly we are being renewed day by day.17For our light and momentary troubles are achieving for us an eternal glory that far outweighs them all. (NIV2 Corinthians 4:16-17)
Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth.3For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God.4When Christ who is your life appears,then you also will appear with him in glory.5Put to death therefore what is earthly in you…6On account of these the wrath of God is coming…9Do not lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old self with its practices10and haveput on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator. (ESVColossians 3:2-10)
C. Conversely, the nature of pride is theattitude of superiority, and the simple product of pride is theconformity of imageto that perceived superiority. Prideful men seek to conform others to their own superiority, and if unhindered he would seek to conform the entire earth to his own image and likeness. This is the core of sin—man seeks not to entrust the world to God, his Master and Creator, but rather he seeks to master and dominate everything unto himself.
In his arrogancethe wicked man hunts down the weak, who are caught in the schemes he devises.3He boasts ofthe cravings of his heart; he blesses the greedy and reviles the LORD.4In his pride the wicked does not seek him; in all his thoughts there is no room for God…13Why does the wicked man revile God? Why does he say to himself, “He won’t call me to account”?14But you, O God, do see trouble and grief; you consider it to take it in hand…16The LORD is King for ever and ever; the nations will perish from his land.17You hear, O LORD, the desire of the afflicted; you encourage them, and you listen to their cry,18defending the fatherless and the oppressed,in order that man, who is of the earth, may terrify no more. (NIVPsalm 10:2-18)
See,the day of the LORD is coming–a cruel day, with wrath and fierce anger– to make the land desolate and destroy the sinners within it.10The stars of heaven and their constellations will not show their light. The rising sun will be darkened and the moon will not give its light.11I will punish the world for its evil, the wicked for their sins. I will put an end tothe arrogance of the haughtyand will humblethe pride of the ruthless. (NIVIsaiah 13:9-11)
D. In other words, man seeks to dominate all men anddisciple them unto himself. This is the basic drive of the flesh of man, which leads many of the servants of God astray. Rather than discipling men unto God, in fear of the Day of the Lord, people disciple men unto themselves to fulfill all the wicked motives of the human heart, e.g. pride, greed, reputation, insecurity, fear, malice, immorality, etc. This inevitably results in the abuse of God’s people rather than their care.
Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his master has set overhis household, to give them their foodat the proper time?…48But ifthat wicked servant(cf.“false prophets”v.11, 24)says to himself, ‘My master is delayed,’49andbegins to beat his fellow servants and eats and drinks with drunkards,50the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know51and will cut him in pieces and put him with the hypocrites. (ESVMatthew 24:45-51)
E. This was the charge of God against the false prophets in the Old Testament, who led the house of Israel astray, rather than focusing their attention on obedience to God and fear of the Day of the Lord.
Woe to the shepherdswho destroy and scatter the sheep of my pasture! declares the LORD…10For the land is full of adulterers; because of the curse the land mourns, and the pastures of the wilderness are dried up. Their course is evil, andtheir might is not right.11Bothprophet and priest are ungodly; even in my house I have found their evil, declares the LORD…17They say continually to those who despise the word of the LORD, “It shall be well with you”; andto everyone who stubbornly follows his own heart, they say, “No disaster shall come upon you.”…19Behold,the storm of the LORD! Wrath has gone forth, a whirling tempest; it will burst upon the head of the wicked…22But if they had stood in my council, then they would haveproclaimed my words to my people, and they would have turned them from their evil way, and from the evil of their deeds. (ESVJeremiah 23:1-22)
Son of man, prophesy against the prophets of Israel who are now prophesying…4Your prophets, O Israel, arelike jackals among ruins.5You have not gone up to the breaks in the wall to repair it for the house of Israel so that it will stand firm in the battle on the day of the LORD…10Because they lead my people astray, saying, “Peace,” when there is no peace, and because, when a flimsy wall is built,they cover it with whitewash,11therefore tell those who cover it with whitewash that it is going to fall…13In my wrath I will unleash a violent wind, and in my anger hailstones andtorrents of rain will fall with destructive fury.14I will tear down the wall you have covered with whitewash and will level it to the groundso that its foundation will be laid bare. When it falls, you will be destroyed in it; and you will know that I am the LORD. (NIVEzekiel 13:2-14)
F. This is the backdrop for Jesus’ charge against the false prophets in the Sermon on the Mount. On the narrow path of walking out our salvation with fear and trembling, there will be many false prophets who will come, and though they even bear the signs of a true prophet, they are “wolves” who devour people for their own gain. However, Jesus exhorts his disciples to be faithful leaders, building “houses” of disciples unto God.
But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it.15Watch out forfalse prophets. They come to you in sheep’s clothing, butinwardly they are ferocious wolves.16By their fruit you will recognize them…19Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down andthrown into the fire.20Thus, by their fruit you will recognize them.21Not everyone who says to me, “Lord, Lord,” will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven.22Many will say to me on that day, “Lord, Lord,did we not prophesyin your name, and in your name drive out demons and perform many miracles?”23Then I will tell them plainly, “I never knew you.Away from me, you evildoers!”24Therefore everyone who hears these words of mine and puts them into practice is like a wise man who built his house on the rock.25The rain came down, the streams rose, and the winds blew and beat against that house; yet it did not fall, because it hadits foundationon the rock…(NIVMatthew 7:14-25)
G. Paul warned of the same thing in his own ministry. Leaders would come, and though they seem truthful, their driving desire is to dominate and control people for their own wealth, glory, and renown. Thus, they cannot entrust others to God.
Now I know that none of you among whom I have gone aboutpreaching the kingdomwill ever see me again.26Therefore, I declare to you today thatI am innocent of the blood of all men.27For I have not hesitated to proclaim to you the whole will of God.28Keep watch over yourselves and all the flock of which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers.Be shepherds of the church of God, which he bought with his own blood.29I know that after I leave,savage wolveswill come in among you and will not spare the flock.30Even from your own number men will arise and distort the truthin order to draw away disciples after them.31So be on your guard! Remember that for three years I never stopped warning each of you night and day with tears.32Now I commit you to God and to the word of his grace, which can build you up and give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctified.33I have not coveted anyone’s silver or gold or clothing.34You yourselves know that these hands of mine have supplied my own needs and the needs of my companions.35In everything I did, I showed you that by this kind of hard work we must help the weak…(NIVActs 20:25-35)
H. Paul expounds on the mechanics of truthfulness vs. falsehood in his first letter to the Corinthians. Division and malice were rampant because people were idolizing and following men rather than God, claiming to be disciples of Paul or Peter or Apollos rather than Christ. Paul rebukes them for calling men their masters and warns against building “houses” of believers that will be destroyed on the Day of the Lord.
You are still worldly. For since there is jealousy and quarreling among you, are you not worldly? Are you not acting like mere men?4For when one says, “I follow Paul,” and another, “I follow Apollos,” are you not mere men?5What, after all, is Apollos? And what is Paul?Only servants, through whom you came to believe– as the Lord has assigned to each his task.6I planted the seed, Apollos watered it, but God made it grow.7So neither he who plants nor he who waters is anything, but only God, who makes things grow.8The man who plants and the man who waters have one purpose, andeach will be rewarded according to his own labor.9For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field,God’s building.10By the grace God has given me,I laid a foundationas an expert builder, and someone else is building on it. Buteach one should be careful how he builds.11For no one can lay any foundation other than the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ.12If any man builds on this foundation using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw,13his work will be shown for what it is, because the Day will bring it to light.It will be revealed with fire, and the fire will test the quality of each man’s work.14If what he has built survives,he will receive his reward.15If it is burned up, he will suffer loss; he himself will be saved, but only as one escaping through the flames.16Don’t you know thatyou yourselves are God’s templeand that God’s Spirit lives in you?17If anyone destroys God’s temple, God will destroy him; for God’s temple is sacred, and you are that temple.18Do not deceive yourselves.If any one of you thinks he is wiseby the standards of this age, he should become a “fool” so that he may become wise.19For the wisdom of this world is foolishness in God’s sight. As it is written: “He catches the wise in their craftiness”;20and again, “The Lord knows that the thoughts of the wise are futile.”21So then,no more boasting about men! All things are yours,22whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world or life or death or the present or the future– all are yours,23and you are of Christ, and Christ is of God.4:1So then, men ought to regard usas servants of Christand as those entrusted with the secret things of God.2Now it is required that those who have been given a trust must prove faithful.3I care very little if I am judged by you or by any human court; indeed, I do not even judge myself.4My conscience is clear, but that does not make me innocent. It is the Lord who judges me.5Therefore judge nothing before the appointed time; wait till the Lord comes. He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and willexpose the motives of men’s hearts. At that time each will receive his praise from God. (NIV1 Corinthians 3:3-4:5)
I. God is jealous for his people, that their hearts would be wholly his. The righteous five-fold ministry identifies with this heart and seeks to establish the church as a pure and spotless virgin on the Day of the Lord, protecting her from false men who would adulterate and ruin her.
I am jealous for youwith a godly jealousy. I promised you to one husband, to Christ, so that I mightpresent you as a pure virgin to him.3But I am afraid that just as Eve was deceived by the serpent’s cunning, your minds may somehow be led astray from your sincere and pure devotion to Christ.4For if someone comes to you andpreaches a Jesusother than the Jesus we preached, or if youreceive a different spiritfrom the one you received, or a different gospel from the one you accepted, you put up with it easily enough.5But I do not think I am in the least inferior tothose “super-apostles.”6I may not be atrained speaker, but I do have knowledge. We have made this perfectly clear to you in every way.7Was it a sin for me to lower myself in order to elevate you bypreaching the gospel of God to you free of charge?8I robbed other churches by receiving support from them so as to serve you.9And when I was with you and needed something, I was not a burden to anyone, for the brothers who came from Macedonia supplied what I needed…13For such men arefalse apostles, deceitful workmen, masquerading as apostles of Christ.14And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light.15It is not surprising, then, if his servants masquerade as servants of righteousness. Their end will be what their actions deserve. (NIV2 Corinthians 11:2-15)
We proclaim him, admonishing and teaching everyone with all wisdom,so that we may present everyone perfect in Christ.29To this end I labor, struggling with all his energy, which so powerfully works in me.2:1I want you to knowhow much I am struggling for youand for those at Laodicea, and for all who have not met me personally.2My purpose is that they may be encouraged in heart and united in love, so that they may have the full riches of complete understanding, in order that they may know the mystery of God, namely, Christ,3in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.4I tell you thisso that no one may deceive youby fine-sounding arguments. (NIVColossians 1:28-2:4)
For the appeal we make does not spring fromerror or impure motives, nor are we trying to trick you.4On the contrary, we speak as men approved by God to be entrusted with the gospel.We are not trying to please menbut God, who tests our hearts.5You knowwe never used flattery, nor did weput on a mask to cover up greed– God is our witness.6We were not looking forpraise from men, not from you or anyone else.As apostles of Christwe could have been a burden to you,7but we were gentle among you, like a mother caring for her little children…10You are witnesses, and so is God, of how holy, righteous and blameless we were among you who believed.11For you know that we dealt with each of you as a father deals with his own children,12encouraging, comforting and urging you to live lives worthy of God, who calls you into his kingdom and glory…19For what is our hope, our joy, or the crown(cf. Is. 62:3; Zech. 9:16)in which we will gloryin the presence of our Lord Jesus when he comes? Is it not you?20Indeed, you are our glory and joy. (NIV1 Thessalonians 2:3-20)