Notes Outline


They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the temple service, and the promises. (HCSB Romans 9:4)


I am speaking the truth in Christ– I am not lying; my conscience bears me witness in the Holy Spirit– 2 that I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. 3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and cut off from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kinsmen according to the flesh. (ESV Romans 9:1-3)

    1. The Adoption

For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, “Abba! Father!” 16 The Spirit himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him. (ESV Romans 8:15-17)

    1. The Glory

For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worth comparing with the glory that is to be revealed to us… 22 For we know that the whole creation has been groaning together in the pains of childbirth until now. 23 And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies. (ESV Romans 8:18-23)

    1. The Covenants

Therefore the Lord assured him with an oath that the nations would be blessed through his offspring; that he would make him as numerous as the dust of the earth, and exalt his offspring like the stars, and give them an inheritance from sea to sea and from the Euphrates to the ends of the earth. (NRSV Sirach 44:21)

…remember that you [Gentiles] were at that time separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, having no hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. (ESV Ephesians 2:12-13)

    1. The Giving of the Law

And when they heard it, they glorified God. And they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed. They are all zealous for the law… (ESV Acts 21:20) 

    1. The Temple Service

“All nine of the LXX occurrences of λατρεία (translating עֲבוֹדָה) and three of its other four NT occurrences (John 16:2; Heb. 9:1, 6) have this denotation. See H. Strathmann, TDNT IV, 59–62” (D. J. Moo, Romans, NICNT [Eerdmans, 1996], 563).

Moses received Torah at Sinai and handed it on to Joshua, Joshua to elders, and elders to prophets. And prophets handed it on to the men of the great assembly. They said three things: (1) “Be prudent in judgment. (2) “Raise up many disciples. (3) “Make a fence for the Torah.” 1:2 Simeon the Righteous was one of the last survivors of the great assembly. He would say: “On three things does the world stand: (1) “On the Torah, (2) “and on the Temple service, (3) “and on deeds of loving kindness.” (m. Abot 1:1-2; J. Neusner, The Mishnah [YUP, 1988], 672–673)

    1. The Promises

For I tell you that Christ became a servant to the circumcised to show God’s truthfulness, in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs, and in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. (ESV Romans 15:8-9)


    1. Rejoicing in Hope

As it is written, “Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing to your name.” [Ps. 18:49] 10 And again it is said, “Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.” [Deut. 32:43] 11 And again, “Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples extol him.” [Ps. 117:1] 12 And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.” [Isa. 11:1] 12 May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope. (ESV Romans 15:9-13)

    1. Consecration in Fear

So that you will not be conceited, brothers, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery: A partial hardening has come to Israel until the full number of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And in this way all Israel will be saved, as it is written: The Liberator will come from Zion; He will turn away godlessness from Jacob. 27 And this will be My covenant with them when I take away their sins [Isa. 59:20-21]. (HCSB Romans 11:25-27)

The thought once again is characteristically apocalyptic, expressive of the certainty that events on earth are following a schedule predetermined by God (e.g., Dan 11:36; Jub. 1.29; 2 Apoc. Bar. 48.2–3, 6; see further Russell, Apocalyptic, 230–34). In particular, the idea of the number of the elect as planned by God and awaiting completion was one which came strongly to the surface in the second half of the first century a.d. (see particularly 2 Apoc. Bar. 23.4; 30.2; 75.6; 4 Ezra 4.36–37; Apoc. Abr. 29.17; Rev 6:11; 7:4; 14:1; 1 Clem 2.4; 59.2; 4 Ezra 2.40–41).” (J. D. G. Dunn, Romans 9–16, WBC [Word, 1998], 680)