5b – The Heavens and the Earth

Notes Outline


Biblical Theology Of Mission Course Introduction

[one_half]1a – Course Syllabus and Fasting[/one_half][one_half_last]1b – Earth’s Global Flood[/one_half_last]

[one_half]2a – False Evidences For Evolution[/one_half][one_half_last]2b – Evidence For Recent Creation[/one_half_last]

[one_half]3a – The Glory of the Original Earth[/one_half][one_half_last]3b – The Glory of Original Man[/one_half_last]

[one_half]4a – 5-Fold Development of the Western Worldview[/one_half][one_half_last]4b – 5-Fold Development of the Western Worldview[/one_half_last]

[one_half]5a – Cosmological Regeneration vs. Annihilation[/one_half][one_half_last]5b – The Heavens and the Earth[/one_half_last]

[one_half]6a – Governmental Introduction To The Kingdom of God[/one_half][one_half_last]6b – Governmental Introduction To The Kingdom of God[/one_half_last]

[one_half]7a – Perpetual Sovereignty of the Kingdom of God[/one_half][one_half_last]7b -Amnestic Foundations of Biblical Soteriology[/one_half_last]

[one_half]8a – The Adamic Covenant and the Messianic Hope[/one_half][one_half_last]8b – The Messianic Crushing and Old Testament Christology[/one_half_last]

[one_half]9a – New Testament Continuance of Messianic Christology[/one_half][one_half_last]9b – New Testament Continuance of Messianic Christology[/one_half_last]

[one_half]10a – Old Testament Survey of Messianic Israelology[/one_half][one_half_last]10b – Old Testament Survey of Messianic Israelology[/one_half_last]

[one_half]11a – New Testament Continuance of Messianic Israelology[/one_half][one_half_last]11b – New Testament Continuance of Messianic Israelology[/one_half_last]

[one_half]12a – Biblical Survey of Messianic Ecclesiology[/one_half][one_half_last]12b – Biblical Survey of Messianic Ecclesiology[/one_half_last]


A. Introduction: The Cosmological Conundrum

1. The biblical metaphysical construct is profoundly simple, yet infinitely complex and difficult to wrap the mind around. The reason for this difficulty ultimately boils down to something of a “fishbowl dilemma.” Being human we are ultimately confined to our own perception of existence, unless communication from beyond our perception is given to us. Thus, apart from diving revelation (i.e. Scriptures), we have no hope understanding the reality of our metaphysical construct.

2. Being the foundation of a biblical worldview, biblical cosmology is thus the first thing to come under the assault of the evolutionary minded (Christian and secular alike). Simplistic, and often erroneous, Newtonian minded illustrations are used to dismiss biblical cosmology, and thus biblical cosmogeny, eschatology, missiology, etc.

Diagram1-Historical-Cosmology Diagram2-Historical-Cosmology-2

3. Naturalism’s cosmology will change many times over as the years unfold, but the biblical metaphysical construct will ultimately hold true. We know this to be true, a posteriori, because it is the only construct that has produced a real immortal, resurrected human being, i.e. Jesus of Nazareth, the “living hope” (1 Pe. 1:3) of our own resurrection.

The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands… 26 From one man he made every nation of men, that they should inhabit the whole earth; and he determined the times set for them and the exact places where they should live… 31 For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead. (NIV Acts 17:24-31)

B. The Expanse Amidst the Waters

In the beginning, God created the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heaven” KJV) and the earth. 2 The earth was without form and void (Hb. tohu b’bohu, “formless and empty” NIV, cf. Job 26:7; Is. 45:18; Jer. 4:23), and darkness was over the face of the deep (Hb. tehom). And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters (Hb. mayim)… 6 And God said, “Let there be an expanse (Hb. raqiya) in the midst of the waters (Hb. mayim), and let it separate the waters from the waters.” 7 And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so. 8 And God called the expanse Heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “sky” NRSV/NIV/NLT). (ESV Genesis 1:1-8)

  • <7549> [;yqir’ raqiya {raw-kee’-ah}

Meaning: 1) extended surface (solid), expanse, firmament 1a) expanse (flat as base, support) 1b) firmament (of vault of heaven supporting waters above) 1b1) considered by Hebrews as solid and supporting ‘waters’ above[1]

Origin: from 07554; TWOT – 2217a; n m

Usage: AV – firmament 17; 17

  • <4325> ~yIm; mayim {mah’-yim}

Meaning: 1) water, waters 1a) water 1b) water of the feet, urine 1c) of danger, violence, transitory things, refreshment (fig.)

Origin: dual of a primitive noun (but used in a singular sense); TWOT – 1188; n m

Usage: AV – water 571, piss 2, waters + 06440 2, watersprings 2, misc 5; 582

  • <8064> ~yIm;v’ shamayim {shaw-mah’-yim}

Meaning: 1) heaven, heavens, sky 1a) visible heavens, sky 1a1) as abode of the stars 1a2) as the visible universe, the sky, atmosphere, etc 1b) Heaven (as the abode of God)[2]

Origin: from an unused root meaning to be lofty; TWOT – 2407a; n m

Usage: AV – heaven 398, air 21; 419


  • Thus says God, the LORD, who created the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA) and stretched them out (amidst the waters), who spread out the earth and what comes from it, who gives breath to the people on it and spirit to those who walk in it (ESV Isaiah 42:5; cf. Is. 45:11-12; cf. Job 9:8; Ps. 104:2; Is. 44:24; 51:13; Jer. 10:12; Zech. 12:1)

1. Abode of Birds

Then God said, “Let the waters (Hb. mayim) abound with an abundance of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the face (Hb. panim, “open” KJV/NASB) of the firmament (Hb. raqiya[3]) of the heavens (Hb. shamayim).” 21 So God created great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded, according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind. (NKJV Genesis 1:20-21)

You, O king, the king of kings, to whom the God of heaven (Ar. shamayin nMDD) has given the kingdom, the power, and the might, and the glory, 38 and into whose hand he has given, wherever they dwell, the children of man, the beasts of the field, and the birds of the heavens (Ar. shamayin nMDD), making you rule over them all- you are the head of gold. (ESV Daniel 2:37-38)

2. Abode of Rain, Snow, Thunder, etc.

For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NLT) and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout… (ESV Isaiah 55:10)

The adversaries of the LORD shall be broken to pieces; against them he will thunder in heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NASB). (ESV 1 Samuel 2:10)

From whose womb did the ice come forth, and who has given birth to the frost of heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NIV/NLT)? (ESV Job 38:29)

3. Abode of Sun, Moon and Stars

And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens (Hb. raqiya h’shamayim) to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens (Hb. raqiya h’shamayim) to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. 16 And God made the two great lights- the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night- and the stars. (ESV Genesis 1:14-16)

And beware lest you raise your eyes to heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NRSV), and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the host of heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA), you be drawn away and bow down to them and serve them, things that the LORD your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA). (ESV Deuteronomy 4:19)

When I look at your heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA), the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place, 4 what is man that you are mindful of him, and the son of man that you care for him? (ESV Psalm 8:3)

4. Abode of God[4]

And he had a dream, and behold, a ladder was set on the earth with its top reaching to heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NET); and behold, the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 13 And behold, the LORD stood above it… (NASB Genesis 28:12-13)

Look down from your holy habitation, from heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA), and bless your people Israel and the ground that you have given us, as you swore to our fathers, a land flowing with milk and honey. (ESV Deuteronomy 26:15)

And listen to the plea of your servant and of your people Israel, when they pray toward this place. And listen in heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA) your dwelling place (Hb. maqom yashab), and when you hear, forgive. (ESV 1 Kings 8:30)

  • <3427> bv;y” yashab {yaw-shab’}

Meaning: 1) to dwell, remain, sit, abide…

Origin: a primitive root; TWOT – 922; v

Usage: AV – dwell 437, inhabitant 221, sit 172, abide 70, inhabit 39…; 1088

For he looked down from his holy height; from heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA) the LORD gazed upon the earth, 20 to hear the groaning of the prisoner; to set free those who were doomed to death. (NASB Psalm 102:19-20)

Bless the LORD, O my soul! … You are clothed with splendor and majesty, 2 covering yourself with light as with a garment, stretching out the heavens like a tent. 3 He lays the beams (Hb. qarah, “rafters” NLT) of his chambers (Hb. aliyah, “upper chambers” NASB/NKJV/NIV) on the waters (Hb. b’mayim, “in, at, by, with, among”; “in the waters” NASB/KJV/NKJV); he makes the clouds his chariot; he rides on the wings of the wind; 4 he makes his messengers winds, his ministers a flaming fire. 5 He set the earth on its foundations, so that it should never be moved. (ESV Psalm 104:1-5)

  • <5944> hY”li[] `aliyah {al-ee-yaw’}

Meaning: 1) roof-room, roof chamber

Origin: from 05927; TWOT – 1624f; n f

Usage: AV – chamber 12, parlour 4, going up 2, ascent 1, loft 1; 20

Has it not been told you from the beginning? Have you not understood from the foundations of the earth? 22 It is he who sits (Hb. yashab, “sits enthroned” NIV) above the circle (Hb. n. chuwg) of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers; who stretches out the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA) like a curtain, and spreads them like a tent to dwell in (Hb. yashab); 23 who brings princes to nothing, and makes the rulers of the earth as emptiness (Hb. tohu, cf. Gen. 1:2). (ESV Isaiah 40:21-23)

  • <2329> gWx chuwg {khoog}

Meaning: 1) circle, circuit, compass 2) (BDB) vault (of the heavens)

Origin: from 02328 [Hb. v. chuwg, “to encircle, encompass, describe a circle, draw round, make a circle”]; TWOT – 615a; n m

Usage: AV – circle 1, circuit 1, compass 1; 3 [Job 22:14; Prov. 8:27; Is. 40:22]

  • The LORD possessed me (Wisdom) at the beginning of His way, before His works of old. 23 From everlasting I was established, from the beginning, from the earliest times of the earth… 26 While He had not yet made the earth and the fields, nor the first dust of the world. 27 When He established the heavens (amidst the waters), I was there, when He inscribed a circle (Hb. n. chuwg) on the face of the deep (Hb. tehom), 28 when He made firm (Hb. amats, “established” KJV/NKJV/NIV) the skies (Hb. shachaq, “clouds” KJV/NKJV/NIV/NLT) above… 30 then I was beside Him, as a master workman. (NASB Proverbs 8:22-30)
  • He stretches out the north (Hb. tsaphon) over the void (Hb. tohu, cf. Gen. 1:2) and hangs the earth on nothing… 9 He covers the face of the full moon and spreads over it his cloud. 10 He has inscribed a circle (Hb. v. chuwg) on the face of the waters (Hb. mayim) at the boundary between light and darkness (cf. Gen. 1:3-5). 11 The pillars of heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NIV) tremble and are astounded at his rebuke. (ESV Job 26:7-11)
  • Is not God in the heights of heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” ESV/NRSV/NLT)? And see how lofty are the highest stars! 13 Yet you (Job) say, “What does God know? Does he judge through such darkness? 14 Thick clouds veil him, so he does not see us as he goes about in the vaulted (Hb. n. chuwg) heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “on the vault of heaven” ESV/NASB/NLT, “on the dome of heaven” NRSV, “above the circle of heaven” NKJV, “in the circuit of heaven” KJV).” (NIV Job 22:12-14)

C. “Heaven of Heavens”

Behold, to the LORD your God belong heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NIV/NLT) and the heaven of heavens (Hb. shameh h’shamayim, “highest heavens” NASB/NKJV/NIV/ NLT), the earth with all that is in it. 15 Yet the LORD set his heart in love on your fathers and chose their offspring after them, you above all peoples, as you are this day. (ESV Deuteronomy 10:14-15)

But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NIV) and the highest heaven (Hb. shameh h’shamayim, “heaven of heavens” KJV/NKJV) cannot contain you; how much less this house that I (Solomon) have built! (ESV 1 Kings 8:27; cf. 2 Chron. 2:6; 6:18)

You are the LORD, you alone. You have made heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NASB/NIV), the heaven of heavens (Hb. shameh h’shamayim, “highest heavens” NIV), with all their host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them; and you preserve all of them; and the host of heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA) worships you. (ESV Nehemiah 9:6)

Praise the LORD! Praise the LORD from the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA); praise him in the heights! 2 Praise him, all his angels; praise him, all his hosts! 3 Praise him, sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars! 4 Praise him, you highest heavens (Hb. shameh h’shamayim, “heavens of heavens” KJV/NKJV), and you waters (Hb. mayim) above the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA)! (ESV Psalm 148:1-4)

  • For thus says the high and exalted One who lives forever, whose name is Holy, “I dwell on a high and holy place (i.e. the height of the heavens), and also with the contrite and lowly of spirit in order to revive the spirit of the lowly and to revive the heart of the contrite.” (NASB Isaiah 57:15)

D. The Throne in the Heavens

And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD and said: “O LORD the God of Israel, who is enthroned (Hb. yashab, “dwells” KJV/NKJV) above the cherubim, you are the God, you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; you have made heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NLT) and earth.” (ESV 2 Kings 19:15)

The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD and against his anointed… 4 He who sits (Hb. yashab, “enthroned” NIV) in the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA) laughs; the Lord holds them in derision. (ESV Psalm 2:2-4)

The LORD has established his throne in the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heaven” NIV/NKJV), and his kingdom rules over all. (ESV Psalm 103:19)

The LORD is exalted over all the nations, his glory above the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA). 5 Who is like the LORD our God, the One who sits enthroned (Hb. yashab) on high, 6 who stoops down to look on the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA) and the earth? (NIV Psalm 113:4-6)

To you I lift up my eyes, O you who are enthroned (Hb. yashab) in the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA)! (ESV Psalm 123:1)

In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up (Hb. nasa, “elevated” NET); and the train of his robe filled the temple. (ESV Isaiah 6:1)

Have you not understood since the earth was founded? 22 He sits enthroned (Hb. yashab) above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers. He stretches out the heavens (Hb. shamayim nMPA) like a canopy, and spreads them out like a tent to live in (Hb. yashab, “dwell in” KJV/NKJV/NASB/ESV). (NIV Isaiah 40:21-22)

Look down from heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA) and see from your lofty throne, holy and glorious. Where are your zeal and your might? (NIV Isaiah 63:15)

Thus says the LORD: “Heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA, “heavens” NET) is my throne, and the earth is my footstool; what is the house that you would build for me, and what is the place of my rest?” (ESV Isaiah 66:1)

This is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree the Most High has issued against my lord the king… Seven times will pass by for you until you acknowledge that the Most High (Ar. illay) is sovereign over the kingdoms of men (i.e. cosmological ~ governmental) and gives them to anyone he wishes. 26 The command to leave the stump of the tree with its roots means that your kingdom will be restored to you when you acknowledge that Heaven rules (Ar. shamayin nMPA; “the heavens do rule” KJV). (NIV Daniel 4:24-26)

  • <5943> yL'[i `illay (Aramaic) {il-lah’-ee}

Meaning: 1) highest, the Most High[5]

Origin: corresponding to 05942 [Hb. illiy, “upper” 2]; TWOT – 2909d; adj

Usage: AV – the most High 5, most high 4, high 1; 10[6]

  • Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? 8 If I ascend to heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA), you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! 9 If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, 10 even there your hand shall lead me, and your right hand shall hold me. (ESV Psalm 139:7-10)
  • “Can a man hide himself in hiding places, So I do not see him?” declares the LORD. “Do I not fill the heavens and the earth?” declares the LORD. (NASB Jeremiah 23:24)

E. The Temple in the Heavens

The LORD is in his holy temple; the LORD’s throne is in heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA); his eyes see, his eyelids test, the children of man. (ESV Psalm 11:4)

To you, O LORD, I call; my rock, be not deaf to me, lest, if you be silent to me, I become like those who go down to the pit. 2 Hear the voice of my pleas for mercy, when I cry to you for help, when I lift up my hands toward your most holy sanctuary. 3 Do not drag me off with the wicked, with the workers of evil… (ESV Psalm 28:1-3)

Ascribe to the LORD, O mighty ones (“heavenly beings” ESV/NRSV), ascribe to the LORD glory and strength… 9 The voice of the LORD twists the oaks and strips the forests bare. And in his temple all cry, “Glory!” 10 The LORD sits enthroned over the flood; the LORD is enthroned as King forever. (NIV Psalm 29:1-10)

In my distress I called to the LORD, and he answered me. From the depths of the grave (Hb. sheol) I called for help, and you listened to my cry. 3 You hurled me into the deep, into the very heart of the seas… 4 I said, “I have been banished from your sight; yet I will look again toward your holy temple.”… 6 To the roots of the mountains I sank down; the earth beneath barred me in forever. But you brought my life up from the pit, O LORD my God. 7 When my life was ebbing away, I remembered you, LORD, and my prayer rose to you, to your holy temple. (NIV Jonah 2:2-7)

  • Now the main point in what has been said is this: we have such a high priest, who has taken His seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPD), 2 a minister in the sanctuary (Gk. hagios aPG, “holy places” ESV), and in the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched (cf. Ps. 104:2; Is. 40:22; etc.), not man. 3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices… those who offer the gifts according to the Law; 5 who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things (Gk. epouranios aPG; cf. “heavenly places,” Eph. 1:3, 20; 2:6; 3:10; 6:12; etc.), just as Moses was warned by God when he was about to erect the tabernacle… (NASB Hebrews 8:1-5)
  • And in the same way he (Moses) sprinkled both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry with the blood… 23 Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPD) should be purified with these (sacrifices)… 24 For Christ has not entered the holy places (Gk. hagios aPA, “sanctuary” NIV) made with hands, which are copies of the true, but into heaven itself (Gk. ouranos nMSA), now to appear in the presence of God for us; 25 not that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood of another– 26 He then would have had to suffer often since the foundation of the world… (NKJV Hebrews 9:23-26)

Hear, O peoples, all of you, listen, O earth and all who are in it, that the Sovereign LORD may witness against you, the Lord from his holy temple. 3 Look! The LORD is coming from his dwelling place; he comes down and treads the high places of the earth. (NIV Micah 1:2-3)

Has not the LORD Almighty determined that the people’s labor is only fuel for the fire, that the nations exhaust themselves for nothing? 14 For the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea… 20 the LORD is in his holy temple; let all the earth be silent before him.” (NIV Habakkuk 2:13-20)

In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord seated on a throne, high and exalted (“elevated” NET), and the train of his robe filled the temple. 2 Above him were seraphs… 3 And they were calling to one another: “Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.” 4 At the sound of their voices the doorposts and thresholds shook and the temple was filled with smoke. (NIV Isaiah 6:1-4)

  • After this I looked and in heaven, the temple, that is, the tabernacle of the Testimony, was opened. 6 Out of the temple came the seven angels with the seven plagues… 8 And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God and from his power, and no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues of the seven angels were completed. (NIV Revelation 15:5-8)
  • “The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever.” … 19 Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and within his temple was seen the ark of his covenant. And there came flashes of lightning, rumblings, peals of thunder, an earthquake and a great hailstorm (signs of the Day of the Lord). (NIV Revelation 11:18-19)

[1] “A large number of Bible verses refer to God ‘stretching out’ or ‘spreading out’ the heavens… In these verses the Hebrew words translated ‘stretch out’ come from the verb hjn (natah), whose primary meaning is ‘extend, stretch out… spread out’ [6, p. 235]. In three of the verses (2 Samuel 22:10, Psalm 18:9, and Psalm 144:5) the verb is translated be a secondary meaning, ‘to bow.’ The Hebrew words translated ‘spread out’ come from the verbs xtm (matach) ‘spread out’, xpj (taphach) ‘spread out, extend’, or [qr (raqa) ‘stamp, spread out.’ The last verb (from Job 37:18) is related to the noun ‘expanse’ (raqia) mentioned in sect. 3. So these 17 verses use four different verbs to communicate the idea of stretching and spreading.” (D. Russell Humphreys, Starlight and Time (Master Books, 1994), 66.]

[2] The heavens are frequently described in figurative language as having windows (Gen 7:11; 2Kings 7:2…), gates (Gen 28:7), doors (Psa 78:23), pillars (Job 26:11), and foundations (2Sam 22:8). They are stretched out and spread out like a tent or a curtain (Isa 40:22). The use of such figurative language no more necessitates the adoption of a pagan cosmology than does the modern use of the term ‘sunrise’ imply astronomical ignorance. The imagery is often phenomenological, and is both convenient and vividly forceful. Thus a disobedient Israel would find the heavens to be like iron (Lev 26:19) or like bronze (Deut 28:23), not yielding the much-needed rain. Note that if the heavens were conceived of as a metallic vault, as is commonly suggested from Gen 1:8, 14 etc., the above passages would be meaningless, since the skies would already be metal. The word r¹qîa° (q.v.) comes from the verb meaning ‘to hammer out’ and ‘stretch (a piece of metal) out’ as an overlay. It is the idea of spreading out that carries over to the noun, not the idea of a metallic substance. ‘Expanse’ is an acceptable translation.” (“shāmayim,” TWOT, 2407a)

[3] “c.1250, from L. firmamentum ‘firmament,’ lit. ‘a support or strengthening,’ from firmus ‘firm’ (see firm (adj.)), used in Vulgate to translate Gk. stereoma ‘firm or solid structure,’ which translated Heb. raqia, a word used of both the vault of the sky and the floor of the earth in the O.T., probably lit. ‘expanse,’ from raqa ‘to spread out,’ but in Syriac meaning ‘to make firm or solid,’ hence the erroneous translation.” (See Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper ed., “Firmament,” available from http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=firmament.)

[4] A full list of OT references would include: Deut. 26:15; 1 Ki. 8:30, 39, 43, 49; 1 Ch. 16:31; 21:26; 2 Ch. 2:6; 6:18, 21, 27, 30, 33, 35, 39; 30:27; Ne. 9:27; Job 22:12, 14; Ps. 2:4; 11:4; 20:6; 33:13; 102:19; 103:19; 113:5; 123:1; 135:6; Eccl. 5:2; Is. 57:15; 63:15; 66:1; Jer. 23:24; Lam. 3:41, 50; Dan. 4:35; 5:23; Zec. 2:13.

[5] This is not to be confused with Hb. elyown, which is also translated “Most High”, usually used in tandem with Hb. el, i.e. “God Most High” (cf. Gen. 14:18ff, 22; Num. 24:16; Deut. 32:8; 2 Sam. 22:14; Psa. 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 21:7; 46:4; 47:2; 50:14; 57:2; 73:11; 77:10; 78:17, 35, 56; 82:6; 83:18; 87:5; 91:1, 9; 92:1; 97:9; 107:11; Isa. 14:14; Lam. 3:35, 38; Dan. 3:26; 4:2, 17, 24f, 32, 34; 5:18, 21; 7:18, 22, 25, 27; Hos. 11:7).

[6] Josh. 15:19; Judg. 1:15; 1 Sam. 1:3, 9, 12ff, 17, 25; 2:11f, 20, 22, 27; 3:1f, 5f, 8f, 12, 14ff; 4:4, 11, 13ff; 14:3; 1 Kgs 2:27; Prov. 27:22.


And when Jesus was baptized, immediately he went up from the water, and behold, the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPN, “heaven” NIV) were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming to rest on him; 17 and behold, a voice from heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPG, “heavens” NASB) said, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.” (ESV Matthew 3:16-17)

  • <3772> ouvrano,j ouranos {oo-ran-os’}

Meaning: 1) the vaulted expanse of the sky with all things visible in it… 2) the region above the sidereal heavens, the seat of order of things eternal and consummately perfect where God dwells and other heavenly beings

Origin: perhaps from the same as 3735; the sky; TDNT – 5:497,736; n m

Usage: AV – heaven 268, air 10, sky 5, heavenly + 1537; 284[1]

  • …to be put into effect when the times will have reached their fulfillment– to bring all things in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPD, “heavens” NASB) and on earth together under one head, even Christ. (NIV Ephesians 1:10)
  • For our citizenship is in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPD), from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ… (NASB Philippians 3:20)
  • For by him all things were created, in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPD, “heavens” NASB) and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities- all things were created through him and for him… 20 and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPD), making peace by the blood of his cross. (ESV Colossians 1:16, 20)
  • In saying, “He ascended,” what does it mean but that he had also descended into the lower parts of the earth? 10 He who descended is the one who also ascended far above (Gk. huperano “higher than” NIV) all the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPG), that he might fill all things. (ESV Ephesians 4:9-10)

A. “Third Heaven”

I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven (Gk. tritou ouranou nMSG) – whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows. 3 And I know that this man was caught up into paradise (Gk. paradeisos)- whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows- 4 and he heard things that cannot be told, which man may not utter. (ESV 2 Corinthians 12:2-4)

  • <3857> para,deisoj paradeisos {par-ad’-i-sos}

Meaning: 1) among the Persians a grand enclosure or preserve, hunting ground, park… 2) a garden, pleasure ground… 3) the part of Hades which was thought by the later Jews to be the abode of the souls of pious until the resurrection: but some understand this to be a heavenly paradise 4) the upper regions of the heavens.

Origin: of Oriental origin cf 06508; TDNT – 5:765,777; n m

Usage: AV – paradise 3; 3 [Lk. 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:3; Rev. 2:7]

  • And the LORD God planted a garden (Gk. paradeisos LXX[2]) in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom he had formed. (ESV Genesis 2:8)
  • And he said to him, “Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise (Gk. paradeisos).” (ESV Luke 23:43)
  • To the one who conquers I will grant to eat of the tree of life, which is in the paradise (Gk. paradeisos) of God. (ESV Revelation 2:7)

B. “Heavenly [Places]”

1. Abode of God/Jesus/Angels

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places (Gk. epouranios aNPD)… 19 according to the working of his great might 20 that he worked in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly places (Gk. epouranios aNPD), 21 far above all rule and authority and power and dominion (i.e. demonic), and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. (ESV Ephesians 1:3-21)

  • <2032> evpoura,nioj epouranios {ep-oo-ran’-ee-os}

Meaning: 1) existing in heaven 1a) things that take place in heaven 1b) the heavenly regions…

Origin: from 1909 [epi, positional prep.] and 3772 [ouranos]; TDNT – 5:538,736; adj

Usage: AV – heavenly 16, celestial 2, in heaven 1, high 1; 20[3]

Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven (Gk. epouranios aMPG, “things in heaven” KJV) and on earth (Gk. epigeios aMPG) and under the earth (Gk. katachthonios aMPG), 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (ESV Philippians 2:9-11)

2. Arena of Angelic/Demonic Interaction

And you were dead in the trespasses and sins 2 in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air (Gk. aer), the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience… 4 But God, being rich in mercy… 5 made us alive together with Christ… 6 and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places (Gk. epouranios aNPD) in Christ Jesus… (ESV Ephesians 2:1-6)

  • <109> avh,r aer {ah-ayr’}

Meaning: 1) the air, particularly the lower and denser air as distinguished from the higher and rarer air 2) the atmospheric region

Origin: from aemi (to breathe unconsciously, i.e. respire; by analogy, to blow); TDNT – 1:165,25; n m

Usage: AV – air 7; 7[4]

To me, though I am the very least of all the saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ… 10 so that through the church the manifold wisdom of God might now be made known to the rulers and authorities (i.e. demonic) in the heavenly places (Gk. epouranios aNPD). (ESV Ephesians 3:8-10)

Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. 12 For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers (i.e. demonic) over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places (Gk. epouranios aNPD). (ESV Ephesians 6:11-12)

C. “Midheaven”

And I saw another angel flying in midheaven (Gk. mesouranema), having an eternal gospel to preach to those who live on the earth, and to every nation and tribe and tongue and people… (NASB Revelation 14:6)

  • <3321> mesoura,nhma mesouranema {mes-oo-ran’-ay-mah}

Meaning: 1) mid-heaven 2) the highest point in the heavens, which the sun occupies at noon, where what is done can be seen and heard by all

Origin: from a compound of 3319 [Gk. mesos, “middle”] and 3772 [Gk. ouranos, “heaven”]

Usage: AV – midst of heaven 3; 3 [Rev. 8:13; 14:6; 19:17]

  • As I looked, thrones were set in place, and the Ancient of Days took his seat21 As I watched, this horn was waging war against the saints and defeating them, 22 until the Ancient of Days came and pronounced judgment in favor of the saints of the Most High, and the time came when they possessed the kingdom. (NIV Daniel 7:9-22)
  • Now war arose in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSD), Michael and his angels fighting against the dragon. And the dragon and his angels fought back, 8 but he was defeated and there was no longer any place for them in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSD). 9 And the great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world- he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 10 And I heard a loud voice in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSD), saying, “Now the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God and the authority of his Christ have come… 12 Therefore, rejoice, O heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPN) and you who dwell in them!” (ESV Revelation 12:7-12)
  • God presides in the great assembly; he gives judgment among the “gods”6 “I said, ‘You are “gods”; you are all sons of the Most High.’ 7 But you will die like mere men; you will fall like every other ruler.” 8 Rise up, O God, judge the earth, for all the nations are your inheritance. (NIV Psalm 82:1-8)
  • One day the angels came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan also came with them. 7 The LORD said to Satan, “Where have you come from?” Satan answered the LORD, “From roaming through the earth and going back and forth in it.” (NIV Job 1:6-7)

D. “Kingdom of the Heavens”[5]

From that time Jesus began to preach, saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPG) is at hand.” (ESV Matthew 4:17)

Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPG), but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPD). (ESV Matthew 7:21)

E. Examples of “Heaven” in the New Testament

And he said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSA) opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.” (ESV John 1:51)

…he (Peter) fell into a trance 11 and saw the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMSA) opened and something like a great sheet descending… (ESV Acts 10:10-11)

After this I looked, and behold, a door standing open in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSD)! (ESV Revelation 4:1)

F. “Heaven” and “Heavens” Used in Tandem in the New Testament

Our Father in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMPD), hallowed be your name. 10 Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSD). (ESV Matthew 6:9-10)

Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSG), and the powers of the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPG) will be shaken. (ESV Matthew 24:29)

For we know that if the earthly tent which is our house is torn down, we have a building from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens (Gk. ouranos nMPD). 2 For indeed in this house we groan, longing to be clothed with our dwelling from heaven (Gk. ouranos nMSG). (NASB 2 Corinthians 5:1-2)

[1] Plural: Matt. 3:2, 16f; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 12, 16, 19, 20, 45; 6:1, 9; 7:11, 21; 8:11; 10:7, 32, 33; 11:11, 12; 12:50; 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44, 45, 47, 52; 16:17, 19; 18:1, 3, 4, 10, 14, 19, 23; 19:12, 14, 21, 23; 20:1; 22:2; 23:13; 24:29, 31, 36; 25:1; Mark 1:10, 11; 11:25; 12:25; 13:25; Luke 10:20; 12:33; 18:22; 21:26; Acts 2:34; 7:56; 2 Cor. 5:1; Eph. 1:10, 3:15; 4:10; 6:9; Phil. 3:20; Col. 1:5, 16, 20; 1 Thess. 1:10; Heb. 1:10; 3:1; 4:14; 6:4; 7:26; 8:1, 5; 9:23; 12:25; 1 Pet. 1:4; 2 Pet. 3:5, 7, 10, 12, 13; Rev. 12:12.

Singular: Matt. 5:18, 34; 6:10, 20; 11:23, 25; 14:19; 16:1; 18:18; 21:25; 22:30; 23:22; 24:29, 30, 35; 26:64; 28:2, 18; Mark 6:41; 7:34; 8:11; 10:21; 11:30, 31; 13:25; 13:25, 27, 31, 32; 14:62; 16:19; Luke 2:13, 15; 3:21f; 4:25; 6:23; 9:16, 54; 10:15, 18, 21; 11:13, 16; 13:19; 15:7, 18, 21; 16:17; 17:29; 18:13; 19:38; 20:4, 5; 21:11, 33; 22:43; 24:51; John 1:32, 51; 3:12f, 27, 31; 6:31ff, 38, 41f, 50f, 58; 12:28; 17:1; Acts 1:10, 11; 2:2, 5, 19; 3:21; 4:12, 24; 7:42, 49, 55; 9:3; 10:11, 16; 11:5, 9, 10; 14:15, 17; 17:24; 22:6; 26:13, 19; Rom. 1:18; 10:6; 1 Cor. 8:5; 15:40, 47, 48, 49; 2 Cor. 5:2; 12:2; Gal. 1:8; Col. 1:23; 4:1; 1 Thess. 4:16; 2 Thess. 1:7; Heb. 9:24; 11:12; 12:26; Jam. 5:12, 18; 1 Pet. 1:12; 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:18; Rev. 3:12; 4:1, 2; 5:3, 13; 8:1, 10; 9:1; 10:1, 4, 5, 6, 8; 11:12, 13, 15, 19; 12:1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10; 13:6, 13; 14:2, 7, 13, 17; 15:1, 5; 16:11, 21; 18:1, 4f, 20; 19:1, 11, 14; 20:1, 9; 21:1, 2, 10.

[2] Paradeisos is used 27 times in the LXX: Gen. 2:8ff, 15f; 3:1ff, 8, 10, 23f; 13:10; Num. 24:6; 2 Chr. 33:20; Neh. 2:8; Eccl. 2:5; Song 4:13; Joel 2:3; Isa. 1:30; 51:3; Jer. 36:5; Ezek. 28:13; 31:8f.

[3] John 3:12; 1 Cor. 15:40, 48f; Eph. 1:3, 20; 2:6; 3:10; 6:12; Phil. 2:10; 2 Tim. 4:18; Heb. 3:1; 6:4; 8:5; 9:23; 11:16; 12:22.

[4] Note that there is no clear distinction made between the immediate air (Acts 22:23; 1 Cor. 9:26; 14:9; Rev. 9:2) and the general atmosphere (Eph. 2:2; 1 Thess. 4:17; 16:17).

[5] The phrase occurs 32 times in the NT; all of which are in Matthew, and all of which contain the plural “heavens”: 3:2; 4:17; 5:3, 10, 19f; 7:21; 8:11; 10:7; 11:11f; 13:11, 24, 31, 33, 44f, 47, 52; 16:19; 18:1, 3f, 23; 19:12, 14, 23; 20:1; 22:2; 23:13; 25:1. It is comparable to “kingdom of God” used 71 times throughout the NT (Matt. 6:33; 12:28; 19:24; 21:31, 43; Mark 1:15; 4:11, 26, 30; 9:1, 47; 10:14f, 23ff; 12:34; 14:25; 15:43; Luke 4:43; 6:20; 7:28; 8:1, 10; 9:2, 11, 27, 60, 62; 10:9, 11; 11:20; 13:18, 20, 28f; 14:15; 16:16; 17:20f; 18:16f, 24f, 29; 19:11; 21:31; 22:16, 18; 23:51; John 3:3, 5; Acts 1:3; 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 28:23, 31; Rom. 14:17; 1 Cor. 4:20; 6:9f; 15:50; Gal. 5:21; Col. 4:11; 2 Thess. 1:5); the two are directly equated in Matt. 19:23-24.


A. C-decay[1]

B. White Hole Cosmology[2]

C. Cosmic Center Model[3]

D. Cosmological Relativity[4]


[1] T. G. Norman and B. Setterfield, The Atomic Constants, Light and Time (Privately published, 1990), 88 pp; Carl Wieland, “Speed of light slowing down after all? Famous physicist makes headlines,” Journal of Creation 16(3):7–10 (December2002); archived at http://creationontheweb.com/content/view/2551; John G. Hartnett, “Is there any evidence for a change in c? Implications for creationist cosmology,” Journal of Creation 16(3):89–94 (December 2002); archived at http://creationontheweb.com/content/view/5866.

[2] D. Russell Humphreys, Starlight and Time: Solving the Puzzle of Distant Starlight in a Young Universe (Master Books, 1994); D.Russell Humphreys, “New vistas of space-time rebut the critics,” Journal of Creation 12(2):195–212 (August 1998); D. Russell Humphreys, “Our galaxy is the centre of the universe, ‘quantized’ redshifts show,” Journal of Creation 16(2):95–104 (August 2002); archived at http://creationontheweb.com/content/view/1570.

[3] Robert V. Gentry, “A new redshift interpretation,” Modern Physics Letters A 12(37):2919–2925 (1997); archived at http://www.robertvgentry.com/reports/arxiv-1998-redshift.pdf; R.V. Gentry, “Collapse of Big Bang Cosmology and the Emergence of the New Cosmic Center Model of the Universe,” Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 56(4):266-276 (2004); archived at http://www.robertvgentry.com/reports/perspectives-2004-collapse-of-big-bang.pdf.

[4] John Hartnett, Starlight, Time and the New Physics (Creation Book Publishers, 2007); John Hartnett and Alex Williams, Dismantling the Big Bang: God’s Universe Rediscovered (Master Books, 2005); John G. Hartnett, “Recent cosmic microwave background data supports creationist cosmologies,” Journal of Creation 15(1):8–12 (April 2001); archived at http://creationontheweb.com/content/view/1825; John G. Hartnett, “Dark matter and a cosmological constant in a creationist cosmology? Journal of Creation 19(1):82–87 (April 2005); archived at http://creationontheweb.com/content/view/4625.


A. <7585> lAav. she’owl {sheh-ole’} or laov. sheol {sheh-ole’}

Meaning: 1) sheol, underworld, grave, hell, pit 1a) the underworld 1b) Sheol – the OT designation for the abode of the dead 1b1) place of no return 1b2) without praise of God 1b3) wicked sent there for punishment 1b4) righteous not abandoned to it 1b5) of the place of exile (fig) 1b6) of extreme degradation in sin

Origin: from 07592; TWOT – 2303c; n f

Usage: AV – grave 31, hell 31, pit 3; 65[1]

  • “The Hebrew word Sheol is probably derived from a root ‘to make hollow,’ and was seen as the common receptacle of the dead and in the great many places the word appears in the OT, it is referring to the grave.”[2]

B. <86> a[|dhj hades {hah’-dace}

Meaning: 1) name Hades or Pluto, the god of the lower regions 2) Orcus, the nether world, the realm of the dead 3) later use of this word: the grave, death, hell

Origin: from 1 (as negative particle) and 1492; TDNT – 1:146,22; n pr loc

Usage: AV – hell 10, grave 1; 11[3]

  • Greek word corresponding to Hb. Sheol, used exclusively for Sheol in the Septuagint (LXX).
  • Equivalent to Tartaros, occurring only once in the NT (2 Pe. 2:4), and even then only in participial form (tartaroō). Tartaros was seen within Greek mythology as the deepest abyss of Hades.

1. <5020> tartaro,w tartaroo {tar-tar-o’-o}

Meaning: 1) the name of the subterranean region, doleful and dark, regarded by the ancient Greeks as the abode of the wicked dead, where they suffer punishment for their evil deeds 2) to thrust down to Tartarus, to hold captive in Tartarus

Origin: from Tartaros (the deepest abyss of Hades);; v

Usage: AV – cast down to hell 1; 1

  • Equivalent to the “Abyss” (Gk. abussos)—“the deep” KJV (Lk. 8:31; Rom. 10:7), “the bottomless pit” KJV (Rev. 9:1f, 11, 11:7; 17:8; 20:1, 3). Also used in the LXX to reference Sheol (e.g. Job 28:14; 41:23; Ps. 71:20; 106:26; 135:6; Jon. 2:5).

C. <1067> ge,enna geenna {gheh’-en-nah}

Meaning: 1) Hell is the place of the future punishment call “Gehenna” or “Gehenna of fire”. This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their future destruction.

Origin: of Hebrew origin 01516 and 02011; TDNT – 1:657,113; n f

Usage: AV – hell 9, hell fire + 3588 + 4442 3; 12[4]

  • The Greek form of the Hebrew words Gee and Hinnom, meaning “valley of Hinnom,” a place to the southwest of Jerusalem once “called ‘Topheth’ and derived from an Aramaic word meaning ‘fireplace.’ It was here that some pagan kings practiced human sacrifice by fire (2 Chr. 28:3; 33:6; Jer. 7:31; 32:25).”[5]

[1] Gen. 37:35; 42:38; 44:29, 31; Num. 16:30, 33; Deut. 32:22; 1 Sam. 2:6; 2 Sam. 22:6; 1 Kgs 2:6, 9; Job 7:9; 11:8; 14:13; 17:13, 16; 21:13; 24:19; 26:6; Psa. 6:5; 9:17; 16:10; 18:5; 30:3; 31:17; 49:14f; 55:15; 86:13; 88:3; 89:48; 116:3; 139:8; 141:7; Prov. 1:12; 5:5; 7:27; 9:18; 15:11, 24; 23:14; 27:20; 30:16; Eccl. 9:10; Isa. 5:14; 7:11; 14:9, 11, 15; 28:15, 18; 38:10, 18; 57:9; Ezek. 31:15ff; 32:21, 27; Hos. 13:14; Amos 9:2; Jonah 2:2; Hab. 2:5 [Job 33:18; Song 8:6].

[2] W. E. Vine, “Sheol,” Vine’s Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Grand Rapids: Fleming H. Revell, 1981).

[3] Matt. 11:23; 16:18; Luke 10:15; 16:23; Acts 2:27, 31; Rev. 1:18; 6:8; 20:13f [1 Cor. 15:55].

[4] Matt. 5:22, 29f; 10:28; 18:9; 23:15, 33; Mark 9:43, 45, 47; Luke 12:5; Jam. 3:6.

[5] Paul J. Achtemeier, “Gehenna,” Harper’s Bible Dictionary (San Francisco: Harper and Row Publishers, 1985).


A. General Occurrences in the Historical Books

Then (after identifying Joseph’s bloody robe) Jacob tore his garments and put sackcloth on his loins and mourned for his son many days. 35 All his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted and said, “No, I shall go down to Sheol to my son, mourning.” Thus his father wept for him. (ESV Genesis 37:34-35)

But he (Jacob) said (to Reuben), “My son (Benjamin) shall not go down (to Egypt) with you, for his brother is dead, and he is the only one left. If harm should happen to him on the journey that you are to make, you would bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol.” (ESV Genesis 42:38; cf. 44:29, 31)

And Moses said, “Hereby you shall know that the LORD has sent me to do all these works, and that it has not been of my own accord. 29 If these men die as all men die, or if they are visited by the fate of all mankind (ending in Sheol), then the LORD has not sent me. 30 But if the LORD creates something new, and the ground opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into Sheol, then you shall know that these men have despised the LORD.” 31 And as soon as he had finished speaking all these words, the ground under them split apart. 32 And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed them up, with their households and all the people who belonged to Korah and all their goods. 33 So they and all that belonged to them went down alive into Sheol, and the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly. (ESV Numbers 16:28-33)

They have made me jealous with what is no god… 22 For a fire is kindled by my anger, and it burns to the depths of Sheol, devours the earth and its increase, and sets on fire the foundations of the mountains. (ESV Deuteronomy 32:21-22)

The LORD kills and brings to life; he brings down to Sheol and raises up. 7 The LORD makes poor and makes rich; he brings low and he exalts. (ESV 1 Samuel 2:6-7)

Then the woman (medium at Endor) said, “Whom shall I bring up for you?” And he (Saul) said, “Bring up Samuel for me.”… 12 And the woman said to Saul, “I saw a spirit ascending out of the earth (from Sheol).” 14 So he said to her, “What is his form?” And she said, “An old man is coming up, and he is covered with a mantle.” And Saul perceived that it was Samuel, and he stooped with his face to the ground and bowed down. 15 Now Samuel said to Saul, “Why have you disturbed me by bringing me up? … 19 Moreover the LORD will also deliver Israel with you into the hand of the Philistines. And tomorrow you and your sons will be with me (in Sheol).” (NKJV 1 Samuel 28:11-19)

I call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be praised, and I am saved from my enemies. 5 For the waves of death encompassed me, the torrents of destruction assailed me; 6 the cords of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me. (ESV 2 Samuel 22:4-6; cf. Psalm 18:3-5)

When David’s time to die drew near, he commanded Solomon his son, saying, 2 “I am about to go the way of all the earth (to Sheol)… 5 you also know what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me… 6 Act therefore according to your wisdom, but do not let his gray head go down to Sheol in peace8 And there is also with you Shimei the son of Gera… 9 You will know what you ought to do to him, and you shall bring his gray head down with blood to Sheol.” 10 Then David slept with his fathers and was buried in the city of David. (ESV 1 Kings 2:1-10)

B. The Abode of the Dead

Why do the wicked live, reach old age, and grow mighty in power? … 13 They spend their days in prosperity, and in peace they go down to Sheol. (ESV Job 21:7-13)

The wicked shall depart to Sheol, all the nations that forget God. 18 For the needy shall not always be forgotten, nor the hope of the poor perish forever. (NRSV Psalm 9:17-18)

I have set the LORD always before me; because he is at my right hand, I shall not be shaken… 10 For you will not abandon my soul to Sheol (as He does the wicked), or let your holy one see corruption. (ESV Psalm 16:8-10)

O LORD, let me not be put to shame, for I call upon you; let the wicked be put to shame; let them go silently to Sheol. (ESV Psalm 31:17)

No man can by any means redeem his brother, or give to God a ransom for him– 8 for the redemption of his soul is costly, and he should cease trying forever– 9 that he should live on eternally (on the earth); that he should not undergo decay (in Sheol/Hades). 10 For he sees that even wise men die; the stupid and the senseless alike perish, and leave their wealth to others… 14 As sheep they are appointed for Sheol; death shall be their shepherd… 15 But God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol; for He will receive me. 16 Do not be afraid when a man becomes rich, when the glory of his house is increased; 17 for when he dies he will carry nothing away; his glory will not descend (to Sheol/Hades) after him. 18 Though while he lives he congratulates himself– and though men praise you when you do well for yourself– 19 He shall go to the generation of his fathers (to Sheol/Hades); they shall never see the light. 20 Man in his pomp, yet without understanding, is like the beasts that perish. (NASB Psalm 49:7-20)

Remember how short my time is– for what vanity you have created all mortals! 48 Who can live and never see death? Who can escape the power of Sheol? (NRSV Psalm 89:47-48)

Enjoy life with the wife whom you love, all the days of your vain life that he has given you under the sun… 10 Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with your might, for there is no work or thought or knowledge or wisdom in Sheol, to which you are going. (ESV Ecclesiastes 9:9-10)

C. Sheol/Hades Within the Earth

The eye of him who sees me will behold me no more; while your eyes are on me, I shall be gone. 9 As the cloud fades and vanishes, so he who goes down to Sheol does not come up. (ESV Job 7:8-9)

Can you discover the depths (“mysteries” NIV/NLT) of God? Can you discover the limits of the Almighty? 8 They are high as (“higher than” ESV/NKJV/NRSV/NIV/NLT) the heavens, what can you do? Deeper than Sheol, what can you know? 9 “Its measure is longer than the earth, And broader than the sea. (NASB Job 11:7-9)

O LORD, deliver my life; save me for the sake of your steadfast love. 5 For in death there is no remembrance of you; in Sheol who will give you praise? (ESV Psalm 6:4-5)

O LORD my God, I cried to you for help, and you have healed me. 3 O LORD, you have brought up my soul from Sheol; you restored me to life from among those who go down to the pit. (ESV Psalm 30:2-3)

Let death steal over them; let them go down to Sheol alive; for evil is in their dwelling place and in their heart. 16 But I call to God, and the LORD will save me. (ESV Psalm 55:15-16)

I will glorify your name forever. 13 For great is your steadfast love toward me; you have delivered my soul from the depths of Sheol. (ESV Psalm 86:12-13)

Where shall I go from your Spirit? Or where shall I flee from your presence? 8 If I ascend to heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA; “the heavens” NIV), you are there! If I make my bed in Sheol, you are there! (ESV Psalm 139:7-8)

But he (the simple man) does not know that the dead are there (house of the auduteress), that her guests are in the depths of Sheol. (ESV Proverbs 9:18)

The path of life leads upward for the prudent, that he may turn away from Sheol beneath. (ESV Proverbs 15:24)

They have lyre and harp, tambourine and flute and wine at their feasts, but they do not regard the deeds of the LORD… 14 Therefore Sheol has enlarged its appetite and opened its mouth beyond measure, and the nobility of Jerusalem and her multitude will go down, her revelers and he who exults in her. (ESV Isaiah 5:12-14)

Again the LORD spoke to Ahaz, 11 “Ask a sign of the LORD your God; let it be deep as Sheol or high as heaven.” (ESV Isaiah 7:10-11)

When the LORD has given you (“house of Israel”–v.2) rest from your pain and turmoil and the hard service with which you were made to serve, 4 you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon (cf. Antimessiah)… 5 “The LORD has broken the staff of the wicked, the scepter of rulers, 6 that struck the peoples in wrath with unceasing blows, that ruled the nations in anger with unrelenting persecution. 7 The whole earth is at rest and quiet; they break forth into singing… 9 Sheol beneath is stirred up to meet you when you come; it rouses the shades (Hb. rapha; “spirits” NASB/NIV/NLT) to greet you, all who were leaders of the earth… 10 All of them will answer and say to you: ‘You too have become as weak as we! You have become like us!’ 11 Your pomp is brought down to Sheol, the sound of your harps; maggots are laid as a bed beneath you, and worms are your covers… 15 you are brought down to Sheol, to the far reaches of the pit.” (ESV Isaiah 14:3-15)

Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his multitude: “Whom are you like in your greatness? 3 Behold, Assyria was a cedar in Lebanon… 5 it towered high above all the trees (nations) of the field (earth)… 12 Foreigners, the most ruthless of nations, have cut it down and left it… 14 For they are all given over to death, to the world below, among the children of man, with those who go down to the pit. 15 Thus says the Lord GOD: On the day the cedar went down to Sheol I caused mourning… 16 I made the nations quake at the sound of its fall, when I cast it down to Sheol with those who go down to the pit. And all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of Lebanon, all that drink water, were comforted in the world below. 17 They also went down to Sheol with it, to those who are slain by the sword; yes, those who were its arm, who lived under its shadow among the nations. 18 Whom are you (Pharaoh et al.) thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? You shall be brought down with the trees of Eden to the world below.” (ESV Ezekiel 31:2-18; cf. 32:21-27)

If they (survivors of the judgments upon Israel) dig into Sheol, from there shall my hand take them; if they climb up to heaven (Hb. shamayim nMPA; “the heavens” NIV/NLT), from there I will bring them down. (ESV Amos 9:1-2)

D. Sheol/Hades Resembling a Prison

If I hope for Sheol as my house, if I make my bed in darkness, 14 if I say to the pit, ‘You are my father,’ and to the worm, ‘My mother,’ or ‘My sister,’ 15 where then is my hope? Who will see my hope? 16 Will it go down to the bars (“gates” NKJV/NIV) of Sheol? Shall we descend together into the dust? (ESV Job 17:13-16)

My soul is full of troubles, and my life draws near to Sheol. 4 I am counted among those who go down to the pit; I am a man who has no strength, 5 like one set loose among the dead… 6 You have put me in the depths of the pit, in the regions dark and deep. 7 Your wrath lies heavy upon me, and you overwhelm me with all your waves… I am shut in so that I cannot escape; 9 my eye grows dim through sorrow. (ESV Psalm 88:3-9)

Her (adultery personified) house is the way to Sheol, going down to the chambers of death. (ESV Proverbs 7:27)

A writing of Hezekiah king of Judah, after he had been sick and had recovered from his sickness: 10 I said, “In the middle of my days I must depart; I am consigned to the gates of Sheol for the rest of my years.” 11 I said, “I shall not see the LORD, the LORD in the land of the living (vs. Sheol, the land of the dead); I shall look on man no more among the inhabitants of the world… 17 Behold, it was for my welfare that I had great bitterness; but in love you have delivered my life from the pit of destruction, for you have cast all my sins behind your back. 18 For Sheol does not thank you; death does not praise you; those who go down to the pit do not hope for your faithfulness. (ESV Isaiah 38:9-18)


And you, Capernaum, will you be exalted to heaven? You will be brought down to Hades (as was Sodom). For if the mighty works done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. 24 But I tell you that it will be more tolerable on the day of judgment for the land of Sodom than for you.” (ESV Matthew 11:23-24; cf. Lk. 10:15)

Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven. 18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.” (NIV Matthew 16:17-18)

The poor man died and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s side. The rich man also died and was buried, 23 and in Hades, being in torment, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham far off and Lazarus at his side. (ESV Luke 16:22-23)

For David says concerning him, “I saw the Lord always before me, for he is at my right hand that I may not be shaken; 26 therefore my heart was glad, and my tongue rejoiced; my flesh also will dwell in hope. 27 For you will not abandon my soul to Hades, or let your Holy One see corruption.”… 31 he foresaw and spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to Hades, nor did his flesh see corruption. 32 This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. (ESV Acts 2:25-32)

When I saw him (“one like a son of man”–v.13), I fell at his feet as though dead. But he laid his right hand on me, saying, “Fear not, I am the first and the last, 18 and the living one. I died, and behold I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of Death and Hades.” (ESV Revelation 1:17-18)

When he opened the fourth seal… 8 I looked, and behold, a pale horse! And its rider’s name was Death, and Hades followed him. And they were given authority over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by wild beasts of the earth. (ESV Revelation 6:7-8)

A. Continued Assumption of Sheol/Hades Being “Under the Earth”

…at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven (Gk. epouranios aMPG) and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. (ESV Philippians 2:9-11)

And no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or to look into it. (ESV Revelation 5:3)

And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying… (ESV Revelation 5:13)

B. Sheol/Hades the Holding Place for Human Judgment

For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell (Gk. tartaroō, participial form of Tartaros; “deepest abyss of Hades”) and committed them to pits of darkness (“gloomy dungeons” NIV), reserved for judgment; 5 and did not spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah, a preacher of righteousness, with seven others, when He brought a flood upon the world of the ungodly; 6 and if He condemned the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah to destruction by reducing them to ashes, having made them an example to those who would live ungodly thereafter; 7 and if He rescued righteous Lot… 9 then the Lord knows how to rescue the godly from temptation, and to keep the unrighteous under punishment (Sheol/Hades) for the day of judgment (Gehenna/Lake of Fire). (NASB 2 Peter 2:4-9)

And the angels who did not keep (Gk. tereo, “stay within” ESV/NLT) their positions of authority but abandoned their own home– these he has kept in darkness (i.e. Hades), bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day. 7 In a similar way, Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding towns gave themselves up to sexual immorality and perversion. They serve as an example of those who suffer the punishment of eternal fire (i.e. Lake of Fire). (NIV Jude 1:6-7)

C. Sheol/Hades Equivalent to the “Abyss” in the New Testament

And they (Gerasene demons named “Legion”) begged him repeatedly not to order them to go into the Abyss (Gk. abussos; “the deep” KJV, “the bottomless pit” NLT). 32 A large herd of pigs was feeding there on the hillside. The demons begged Jesus to let them go into them, and he gave them permission. (NIV Luke 8:31-32)

  • “What do you want with us, Son of God?” they shouted. “Have you come here to torture us before the appointed time?”… 31 The demons begged Jesus, “If you drive us out, send us into the herd of pigs.” (NIV Matthew 8:29-31)
  • <12> a;bussoj abussos {ab’-us-sos}

Meaning: 1) bottomless 2) unbounded 3) the abyss 3a) the pit 3b) the immeasurable depth 3c) of Orcus, a very deep gulf or chasm in the lowest parts of the earth used as the common receptacle of the dead and especially as the abode of demons

Origin: from 1 (as a negative particle) and a variation of 1037; TDNT – 1:9,2; n f

Usage: AV – bottomless pit 5, deep 2, bottomless 2; 9

But the righteousness (unto messianic inclusion) that is by faith (in Jesus as Messiah) says: “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?'” (that is, to bring Christ down) 7 “or ‘Who will descend into the deep (Gk. abussos; “abyss” NASB/ESV/NKJV/NRSV)?'” (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead). 8 But what does it say? “The word is near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart,” that is, the word of faith we are proclaiming: 9 That if you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. (NIV Romans 10:6-9)

The beast, which you saw, once was, now is not, and will come up out of the Abyss (“the bottomless pit” KJV/NKJV/ESV/NRSV/NLT) and go to his destruction (i.e. Gehenna/Lake of Fire). (NIV Revelation 17:8; cf. 9:1f, 11; 11:7)

And I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key to the Abyss (“bottomless pit” KJV/NKJV/ESV/NRSV/NLT, cf. v.3) and holding in his hand a great chain. 2 He seized the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is the devil, or Satan, and bound him for a thousand years (to be held for judgment). 3 He threw him into the Abyss, and locked and sealed it over him, to keep him from deceiving the nations anymore… 7 When the thousand years are over, Satan will be released from his prison (i.e. Sheol/Hades/Abyss) 8 and will go out to deceive the nations… 9 But fire came down from heaven and devoured them. 10 And the devil, who deceived them, was thrown into the lake of burning sulfur (i.e. Gehenna), where the beast and the false prophet had been thrown. They will be tormented day and night for ever and ever (the judgment). (NIV Revelation 20:1-10)

D. Sheol/Hades Likewise Referred to as a “Prison” in the New Testament

For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit, 19 through whom also he went and preached to the spirits in prison 20 who disobeyed long ago when God waited patiently in the days of Noah while the ark was being built… 4:5 But they will have to give account to him (Messiah) who is ready to judge the living and the dead (cf. Acts 10:42; 17:31). 6 For this is the reason the gospel was preached even to those who are now dead (in Sheol/Hades), so that they might be judged according to men in regard to the body, but live according to God in regard to the spirit. 7 The end of all things is near (when Messsiah will judge the living and the dead, throwing them into Gehenna/Lake of Fire). Therefore be clear minded and self-controlled so that you can pray. (NIV 1 Peter 3:18-4:7)

  • For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell (Gk. tartaroo), and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; 5 And spared not the old world, but saved Noah… 9 The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment. (KJV 2 Peter 2:4-9)
  • But grace was given to each one of us according to the measure of Christ’s gift. 8 Therefore it says, “When he ascended on high (cf. Acts 1:9) he led a host of captives (from the “depths of the earth,” i.e. Sheol/Hades), and he gave gifts to men (to testify to the coming messianic judgment, cf. Heb. 2:4).” 9 (In saying, “He ascended,” what does it mean but that he had also descended into the lower parts of the earth (cf. Num. 16:30; Job 40:13; Ps. 63:9; 86:13; Is. 14:9)? 10 He who descended is the one who also ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things.) (ESV Ephesians 4:7-10)
  • For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart (Gk. kardia) of the earth (i.e. Sheol/Hades). (ESV Matthew 12:40)
  • And behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom, and the earth shook; and the rocks were split, 52 and the tombs were opened; and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised; 53 and coming out of the tombs after His resurrection (cf. “ascended on high”–Eph. 4:8) they entered the holy city and appeared to many (before being led on high). (NASB Matthew 27:51-53)

E. That Which Abides in Sheol/Hades Will Ultimately Be Thrown into the Lake of Fire

And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison (i.e. Sheol/Hades/Abyss) 8 and will come out to deceive the nations… 9 but fire came down from heaven and consumed them, 10 and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were (cf. 19:20), and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever12 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened… And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. 13 And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them, and they were judged, each one of them, according to what they had done. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. (ESV Revelation 20:7-14)

He said to me: “It is done (punishment and reward)… 7 He who overcomes will inherit all this, and I will be his God and he will be my son. 8 But the cowardly, the unbelieving, the vile, the murderers, the sexually immoral, those who practice magic arts, the idolaters and all liars– their place will be in the fiery lake of burning sulfur. This is the second death.” (NIV Revelation 21:6-8)

F. Gehenna Equated with the Lake of Fire in the New Testament

You have heard that it was said to those of old, “You shall not murder; and whoever murders will be liable to judgment.” 22 But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother will be liable to judgment; whoever insults his brother will be liable to the council; and whoever says, ‘You fool!’ will be liable to the hell (Gk. gehenna) of fire29 If your right eye causes you to sin (cf. lust/adultery), tear it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell (Gk. gehenna). 30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell (Gk. gehenna). (ESV Matthew 5:21-30)

What I tell you in the dark, say in the light, and what you hear whispered, proclaim on the housetops. 28 And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell (Gk. gehenna). (ESV Matthew 10:27-28; cf. Lk. 12:5)

Woe to the world for temptations (of “little ones”–v.6) to sin! … 8 And if your hand or your foot causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life (i.e. resurrection of the dead) crippled or lame than with two hands or two feet to be thrown into the eternal (Gk. aionios) fire. 9 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into the hell (Gk. gehenna) of fire. (ESV Matthew 18:7-9)

But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut the kingdom of heaven in people’s faces (i.e. exclusion from Messianic Kingdom). For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter to go in. 14 (Textus Receptus insertion) 15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell (Gk. gehenna) as yourselves… 33 You serpents, you brood of vipers, how are you to escape being sentenced to hell (Gk. gehenna)? (ESV Matthew 23:13-33)

Whoever causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him if a great millstone were hung around his neck and he were thrown into the sea. 43 And if your hand causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life (i.e. resurrection of the dead) crippled than with two hands to go to hell (Gk. gehenna), to the unquenchable (Gk. asbestos; cf. Gk. aionios, “eternal”–Mt. 18:8) fire. 44 (Textus Receptus insertion, cf. v.48) 45 And if your foot causes you to sin, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life lame than with two feet to be thrown into hell (Gk. gehenna). 46 (Textus Receptus insertion, cf. v.48) 47 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God (i.e. Messianic Kingdom) with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell (Gk. gehenna), 48 ‘where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.’ (cf. Is. 66:24) (ESV Mark 9:42-48)

And the tongue is a fire, a world of unrighteousness. The tongue is set among our members, staining the whole body, setting on fire the entire course of life, and set on fire by hell (Gk. gehenna). 7 For every kind of beast and bird, of reptile and sea creature, can be tamed and has been tamed by mankind, 8 but no human being can tame the tongue. It is a restless evil, full of deadly poison. (ESV James 3:6-8)

G. Gehenna/Lake of Fire is an Eschatological Reality, Not Present

Jesus told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a man who sowed good seed in his field… 38 The field is the world, and the good seed stands for the sons of the kingdom. The weeds are the sons of the evil one, 39 and the enemy who sows them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the harvesters are angels. 40 As the weeds are pulled up and burned in the fire (i.e. Gehenna/Lake of Fire), so it will be at the end of the age. (NIV Matthew 13:24-40; cf. Lk. 8:31-32;Mt. 8:29-31)

When the Son of Man comes in his glory (cf. 24:30; 16:27; 19:28), and all the angels with him, he will sit on his throne in heavenly glory. 32 All the nations will be gathered before him… 41 Then he will say to those on his left, “Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire (i.e. Gehenna/Lake of Fire) prepared for the devil and his angels.”… 46 Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life. (NIV Matthew 25:31-46)

God is just: He will pay back trouble to those who trouble you… 7 This will happen when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven in blazing fire with his powerful angels. 8 He will punish those who do not know God and do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 9 They will be punished with everlasting destruction (i.e. Gehenna/Lake of Fire) and shut out from the presence of the Lord and from the majesty of his power… (NIV 2 Thessalonians 1:6-9)

By these waters (of the Flood) also the world of that time was deluged and destroyed. 7 By the same word the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men (i.e. Gehenna/Lake of Fire). (ESV 2 Peter 3:6-7)

If anyone worships the beast and his image and receives his mark on the forehead or on the hand, 10 he, too, will drink of the wine of God’s fury, which has been poured full strength into the cup of his wrath. He will be tormented with burning sulfur in the presence of the holy angels and of the Lamb. 11 And the smoke of their torment rises for ever and ever (i.e. Gehenna/Lake of Fire). (NIV Revelation 14:9-11)

H. Summary of Different Terms

1. Sheol = Hades = Abussos = Tartaros

(Present reality under the earth—holding place for final judgment)

2. Gehenna = Lake of Fire

(Eschatological reality on the earth—final judgment, justice established)


There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time your people– everyone whose name is found written in the book– will be delivered. 2 Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. (NIV Daniel 12:1-2)

When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit on his throne in heavenly glory. 32 All the nations will be gathered before him (i.e. general resurrection), and he will separate the people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 33 He will put the sheep on his right and the goats on his left. 34 Then the King will say to those on his right, “Come, you who are blessed by my Father; take your inheritance, the kingdom prepared for you since the creation of the world…” 41 Then he will say to those on his left, “Depart from me, you who are cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels…” 46 Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.” (NIV Matthew 25:31-46)

Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live (i.e. general resurrection). 26 For as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself. 27 And he has given him authority to execute judgment, because he is the Son of Man. 28 Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice 29 and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment. (ESV John 5:25-29)

I admit that I worship the God of our fathers as a follower of the Way, which they call a sect. I believe everything that agrees with the Law and that is written in the Prophets, 15 and I have the same hope in God as these men, that there will be a resurrection of both the righteous and the wicked. (NIV Acts 24:14-15)

And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne (i.e. general resurrection), and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done… 15 And if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life (cf. resurrection of life), he was thrown into the lake of fire (cf. resurrection of judgment). (ESV Revelation 20:12-15)